The brightest star that we can see full stop is the Sun with an apparent magnitude of -26.74 which is so bright we are unable to see any other stars during the day. If you see a star during the morning, it is probably Venus and not a star.
For the list below, the list is based on the apparent magnitude from the Hipparcos Catalogue. Hipparcos was the name of a satellite that was sent into space by the European Space Agency on August 8th, 1989 which monitored over 100,000 closest stars.
Something you will notice is that generally the brightest star in a constellation will have the Alpha designation but not always, for example, the constellation of Orion where Rigel is the Beta star but isn't the brightest. The other thing you notice is that both stars from the same constellation make the list, its not uncommon as a couple of stars from Canis Major and Gemini make the list. A lot of Alpha stars of major constellations such as Acubens, the alpha star of Cancer the Crab doesn't make the list.
Being nearby doesn't necessarily mean they will be the brightest in the night sky, the nearest star to Earth, Proxima Centauri is not visible to the naked eye, it is a small red dwarf a mere 4 light years away. The next closest star, Rigil Kentaurus does make the list.
|#||Star Name||Constellation||Latin Name||Distance (Lieutenant Yr)||Magnitude|
|1||Sirius||Canis Major||Alpha Canis Majoris||8.60||-1.44|
|4||Rigil Kentaurus||Centaurus||Alpha Centauri||4.32||-0.01|
|8||Procyon||Canis Minor||Alpha Canis Minoris||11.46||0.4|
|18||Fomalhaut||Piscis Austrinus||Alpha Piscis Austrini||25.13||1.17|
|22||Adhara||Canis Major||Epsilon Canis Majoris||405.17||1.5|
|30||Al Nair||Grus||Alpha Gruis||101.01||1.73|
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