Stormtrooper is a fictional male in the Star Wars series. The character was portrayed on screen by -. His allegiance / loyalty is to The Galactic Empire. The Stormtrooper is the foot soldiers of the Empire who do all the running about and attacking on the ground. The Stormtrooper were originally clones of Jango Fett, made by master clones from Kamino. There are no records of any of the standard stormtroopers as yet being female however it is rumoured some will be female in future releases of the film.
Captain Phasma is a senior stormtrooper who appeared in the sequel trilogy. Phasma is a female stormtrooper wearing a chrome colour suit compared to the white suits of the other stormtroopers.
Although most of the stormtroopers were clones up until the end of Star Wars VI - Return of the Jedi when supposedly the clone factories were shut down. In the sequel trilogy, The First Order enlisted humans such as Finn. Finn after experiencing the effects of war, deserted his legion and tried to join the Rebel Alliance.
They were originally ordered by Jedi Knight Sifo-Dyas who was a fallen Jedi Knight before the events of Star Wars II - Attack of the Clones which revealed the Clones production. It is widely speculated that the person who requested the creation of the Clone Army was Palpatine in his disguise as Darth Sidious. When the Jedi Council learns of the creation, they suggest to the Vice-Chancellor Palpatine that the army be used to combat the Separatists as the Jedis are few in number. With fake reluctance, Palpatine agrees to use the clone army.
The original series stormtroopers had all the soldiers in white. In the prequels, the trooper had colour on them indicating their rank but this changed in the second film to indicate their battalion. The order of colour rank was White (Standard), Green (Clone Sergeant), Blue ( Clone Lieutenant), Red (Clone Captain) and Yellow (Clone Commander). The higher up the rank you was, the more men that you had under your command. 1
Soldiers didn't tend to have names however, the most well known one was Commander Cody who appeared in Star Wars III - Revenge of the Sith when he helped Obi-Wan Kenobi as he tried to take on General Grievous on Utapau. Cody appeared in the film for a short period, he appeared for longer in the Clone Wars cartoon series. It was Cody who was given the Order 66 to kill his friend Obi-Wan but who (Obi-Wan) managed to escape. Code 66 was given to all the Stormtrooper commanders who were then ordered to kill all the Jedis.
There are specialist troopers for different operations. There is the standard Imperial Stormtrooper who would do the fighting on any generic landscape. There are also Snow Troopers and Scout Troopers. The Snow Troopers were seen helping Darth Vader attack Echo Base, the rebel base on the ice world of Hoth. Scout troopers wear camouflage such as in the battle on Kashyyyk but on Endor, they stayed white. Scout Troopers travelled in bikes across the ground and had light weaponry compared to the other soldiers of the clone/imperial army.
All Stormtroopers are supposed to the same height which Princess Leia noticed straight away when Luke Skywalker entered the prison cell holding the Princess to rescue her. As stormtroopers were supposed to be all the same, the Internet got into a flap when Finn, one of the characters from star Wars - The Force Awakens appeared in a stormtrooper outfit. However he could be infiltrator, a newer model or a conscripted soldier after the clone production planet was closed down and new clones are needed and so conscription was used.
Death Troopers differ from Stormtroopers in that instead of being clad in white, they are clad in black, in the same way Darth Vader is clad in. There's not much information out about Death Troopers apart from what is in the expanded universe. Death Troopers first appeared in a book in 2010 in a horror story of the same name where Stormtroopers have become zombies. Its unlikely these Death Troopers will be zombies, just another class of stormtroopers like the Scout Troopers and Snow Troopers. They might well be Special Forces Storm Troopers. They only got a mention so far in Star Wars - Rogue One and don't appear in "latter" films.