Monoceros (Pronounciation:Mono-sear-os, Abbrev:Mon, Latin:Monocerotis) is a constellation, one of 88 constellations that the night sky is divided into. The sky is not divided up equally between the constellations. Monoceros takes up 481.569 sq. degrees of the night sky which equates to 1.17% of the night sky. Monoceros is the 35th largest in terms of size in the night sky.
The constellation name means The Unicorn . It was not one of the original constellations that had been devised by Ptolemy, instead it was created by Jakob Bartsch years later.
There are 7 stars that make up the main constellation. The hipparcos satellite scanned and detailed 1444 stars. There are 71 stars that can be seen with the naked eye in the constellation on a very clear night sky.
Monoceros is not a member of the Zodiac group of twelve constellations that appear when the Sun sets. Monoceros is an equatorial constellation that can be seen by countries nearest the Equator.
There are 25 Extrasolar Planets (Exoplanets) in this constellation that are detailed on this site. There is a dedicated page for exoplanets in Monoceros. The current largest star so far identified in the constellation of Monoceros is V838 Monocerotis.
There are 1 deep space objects that were identified by Charles Messier in this constellation. There are 2 non-Messier deep space objects that are covered on this site and the list is below.
The image at the top right of this page was generated using Night Vision, a free to use and download application by Brian Simspon.
You can't just go to one location and arrive at the constellation because the constellation is made up of stars at different locations and different distances. The nearest main star in the constellation is at a distance of 147.00 light years and the furthest main star is a distance of 3,929.00 light years. The average distance to the main stars is 1,008.43 light years.
The caveat of these stars are that they are catalogued on this site. If you know of a star that is nearer or further then do let me know in the comments and I'll add it to the site. The stars mentioned are from the Hipparcos catalogue or have been added because of their special status.
The nearest star to Earth is HIP 30920 which is roughly about 13.46 Light Years from the Earth. The nearest star to the Earth with an exoplanet is HD 52265 which is about 94.46 Light Years.
The furthest star that is located in the constellation is HIP 28535 and it is 326163.3 light years away from the Sun. The furthest figure is derived from either the 1997 or 2007 Hipparcos star catalogue parallax figure and it has been known to produce distances that are wrong.
The brightest star in Monoceros is Beta Monocerotis and is located about 15.72 light years from the Sun. The star has a apparent magnitude of 3.76 but an absolute magnitude of -2.82 when the star is viewed from a distance of 10 Parsecs or 32.6 Light Years. The star is only recognised as being Beta Monocerotis rather than having Alpha status.
The dimmest star that can be seen in Monoceros with the naked eye is HD 43319. The dim star has an apparent magnitude of 5.99. The dimmest star that a person is able to see with their naked eye is 6.0 magnitude based on the table in the reference. Ref: University of Michigan.
Scholtz is named after the scientist who studied or led the study into it, Ralf-Dieter Scholz in 2013. The interesting thing about this star is that it was estimated at being less a light year away some 70,000 years ago. Such a distance would have put the small red dwarf inside the Oort Cloud, the theorized cloud of comets that encompass our solar system.
The constellation can boast having the location of the nearest black hole so far discovered in our galaxy to us. It is still 2,600 light years away. It is so far as for us to not worry about the effect of it. As we search the skies more, there might well be a closer black hole discovered but until then Monoceros has hold onto the accolade. Granted, V616 Monoceros is not a star but it is dead remnants of a giant star.
Monoceros is visible for the first four months of the year for both the southern and northern hemispheres before it disappears under the horizon before 9 p.m. every night. It will first appear in the eastern horizon, not rise very far before disappearing under the horizon in the west. Monoceros doesn't return to the skies until December.
This along with Camelopardalis was created by Jakob Bartsch and there is no Greek mythology behind it. Although not a direct greek legend like the others, the creature it represents, a Unicorn is definitely a mythological creature.
There are 7 Meteor Showers that occur during the year within this constellation based on information gathered from Adam Mickiewicz University (Poland). The list below are major ones and which I have a date period for.
|Name||Activity||Peak Activity||Closest Star|
|Alpha Monocerotids||Nov 15 - Nov 25||Nov 21||Alpha Monocerotis|
|Monocerotids||Nov 27 - Dec 17||Dec 09||Zeta Monocerotis|
The following list contains the stars that make up the constellation. For a larger list of stars in the entire constellation area, please visit the For a list of named stars, that is stars that don't start HD or HIP, please visit Monoceros Star List page.
|Name||Bayer||Distance (Lt.Yr.)||Right Ascension||Declination||Spectral Type||Colour|
|Alpha Monocerotis||Alpha Monocerotis||147||07h 41m 14.88||-09d 33` 03.9||K0III||Orange|
|Beta Monocerotis||Beta Monocerotis||676||06h 28m 49.07||-07d 01` 59.0||B3Ve||Blue/White|
|Gamma Monocerotis||Gamma Monocerotis||497||06h 14m 51.34||-06d 16` 29.0||K3III||Orange|
|Delta Monocerotis||Delta Monocerotis||384||07h 11m 51.86||-00d 29` 34.0||A2V||White|
|Zeta Monocerotis||Zeta Monocerotis||1058||08h 08m 35.66||-02d 59` 01.6||G2Ib||Yellow|
|13 Monocerotis||3929||06h 32m 54.23||+07d 19` 58.7||A0Ib||White|
|18 Monocerotis||368||06h 47m 51.66||+02d 24` 43.9||K0III||Orange|
|Is a Zodiac Sign||No|
|Brightest Star||Beta Monocerotis|
|Area||481.569 sq. deg.|
|Percentage of Night Sky||1.17%|
|Site Exoplanet Count||25|
|Meteor Shower Count||7|
|Nearest Star||HIP 30920|
|Nearest Star with Exoplanet(s)||HD 52265|
|Largest Star||V838 Monocerotis|
|Brightest Star||Beta Monocerotis|
|Dimmest Star||HD 43319|
|Furthest Star||HIP 28535|
|Bright Star Count||71|
|Hipparcos Star Count||1444|
|Main Star Count||7|
|Messier Deep Space Object Count||1|
|Bordering / Neighbouring / Surrounding Constellations||Gemini|
*Note: The number of Non-Messier Deep Space Object Count relates to how many are covered on this site not how many there are.
|Caldwell 50||Open Star Cluster||5200||4:56||6h 31h 54|
|Cone Nebula (NGC2264)||Dark Nebula||2.700||+09:21||06h 41m 15|
|Messier 50 (NGC2323)||Open Star Cluster||3200||-08:20||07h 03m 2|
|NGC 2246||Bright Nebula||+04 59 07.1||06 30 39m 54|
|Red Rectangle Nebula||Protoplanetary Nebula||2300||-10d 38` 14.691||06h 19m 58m 216|
|Rosette Nebula||Nebula||5200||04:59:54||06h 33h 45|
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