In short, Magnitude is the measure of how bright an object in space is. The brightest object in space is measured at -26.74 and it comes as no surprise that that object is the Sun. The dimmest objects that we can see unaided, that is without using a pair of binoculars or a telescope has a magnitude of 6.5. It seem a little illogical to have a scale going from - to + where negative is brightest like that but that's how it is.
Apparent Magnitude is the magnitude of an object as it appears in the sky on Earth. Apparent Magnitude is also referred to as Visual Magnitude. The magnitude of a star excluding the Sun has no bearing on how big the star is or how near the star is. The star UY Scuti has apparent magnitude of 11.2 which is not something that can be seen from Earth with the naked eye but it is bigger than Sirius which has an apparent magnitude of -1.44 and is the brightest star in the night sky. Sirius is visible in the night sky whereas UY Scuti isn't.
Below is a small selection of what objects are possible at a selected amount of magnitudes. For a complete list, you should visit Wiki. The values in brackets are the values that Astronomy Notes give for examples and are more precise excluding Vega.
Anything that is dimmer than 32 magnitude is not something we are able to see at the moment. When the James Webb Space Telescope eventually goes into orbit, we could well see something of a lower magnitude, whether it be a galaxy that is further than the current record holder GN+z11 is open to debate. GN+z11 is not something that can be seen unaided.
|Apparent Magnitude||Absolute Magnitude|
|-27 (-26.7)||The Sun|
|-13 (-12.6)||Full Moon|
|-7||SN 1006 supernova|
|-6||International Space Station|
|-4||Faintest Daytime Object|
|-3||Jupiter / Mars|
|0 (0.3)||0.58 / N.A.||Vega / Saturn|
|5||Vesta / Uranus|
|6 (6.5)||Naked Eye Maximum|
|10||7x50 Binoculars Max|
|13||4.5 - 6 in Telescope Max, 3C 273 quasar at 12.8|
|14||Pluto - 8-10in Telescope Max|
|27||8m Telescope Max|
|32||Hubble Space Telescope Max|
Absolute Magnitude is a calculated value of how bright the star would be at a distance of 10 parsecs (32.6 Light Years). Using this value, you can get an idea of just how bright the object really is and compare like for like. The value is calculated by the following formula.
Mv = mv -5 (log d -1)
Lets take Regulus as an example, the distance (d) of Regulus as measured in parsecs is 41.13 using the 2007 figures. mv is the apparent visual magnitude which in 2007, it was 1.36 which means our absolute magnitude is -0.57.
The formula can make the star on some occasions seem dimmer than it is seen from Earth. Take Promixa Centauri, the reason for the star to seem dimmer is because from Earth, the star is less than 10 parsecs from Earth, it is only 1.3 parsecs from Earth so the absolute magnitude is how it is seen further away than from the Earth.
The below is a selection of stars, their apparent magnitude, the absolute and how far away they are in Light Years. The reason for choosing V762 Cassiopeiae is because it is the furthest star you can see with the naked eye in good conditions.
|Apparent Magnitude||Absolute Magnitude||Distance (Lt. yr)||Star|
Magnitudes don't just apply to stars, they can apply to other objects such as planets. When talking about Asteroids, the Apparent Magnitude is how we see it on Earth. The Absolute Magnitude is how bright the object is from 1 Astronomical Unit (A.U.), that is the distance from the Sun to Earth. Absolute Magnitude of asteroids are denoted with a H. Ref: N.A.S.A.