Brown Dwarf stars are giant balls of gas, too big to be classed as a gas planet and too small to start nuclear fusion. If Jupiter, the biggest planet in our solar system had bigger mass then it would not be a gas giant but a brown dwarf. Brown Dwarfs will have the Spectral type of T or L. These types of stars are sometimes referred to as failed stars as they have not successfully started nuclear fusion There are no Giant, Supergiant or Hypergiant equivalents.
Teide 1, a star in the Pleiades, a star cluster in the constellation of Taurus is the first brown dwarf to have been discovered in the middle of the nineties. Its spectral type is M8 which implies it is a red dwarf, the difference is that it was identified as a brown dwarf after its spectral type was recorded by Hipparcos.
Teide 1 was discovered in 1995 which before then, they were just theory. The star was discovered was detected in optical images of the central region of the Pleiades star cluster. It was confirmed in follow up observatiions at the end of the same year. The paper announcing the discovery was submitted the following year. Research Gate.
There is a theory that our Sun has a companion brown star called nemesis that when it comes close to the Oort Cloud that a comet is sent in our direction and can cause a mass extinctions such as the one that caused the end of the dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals 65 million years ago. It is only a hypothesis and one that has not been proven.
The Oort Cloud is a mass of comets that surrounds our solar system that is reckoned to be about one light year away from our solar system. Any disturbed object that was sent on its way to Earth would take a long time to get here. As Brown Dwarfs are dark and don't give off much light, it is hard to spot Nemesis, that is if it is out there.
The current nearest Brown dwarf star so far discovered is WISE J085510.83-071442.5 which is a mere 7.5 light years away, still too far to travel to and back given the speed that our space probes and ships can currently do. The star is one of the coldest stars so far discovered, it temperature can get down as far as minus 54 degrees Fahrenheit. Quora The star is in the constellation of Hydra.
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