Universe Guide

What is a Galaxy?

Galaxy Facts

Our star 'The Sun' is one of many billions of other stars that that make up The Milky Way Galaxy. Our Milky Way is in turn, one of many billions of galaxies that make up the physical part of the universe. Galaxies also include comets, asteroids, nebulas, planets etc. Most galaxies are moving away from us but the famous Andromeda galaxy is moving towards us. No need to panic, it will not happen for millions and millions of years and by that time, the entire human race will have be gone, either dead or on another planet. It had been once thought that all the stars in the Universe was in the Milky Way but that all changed in the 1920's during what is known as the Great Debate,

What is at the centre of the galaxy?

No-one knows for sure, some say it's a super-star, a collection of bright stars or a super-black hole. The centre is commonly known as a supermassive black hole. The centre of the Milky Way is so far away, we've not yet been able to determine what is there as yet. What we do know is that we are in the suburbs of the galaxy.

Galactic Center of the Milky Way in <a href=/constellation/sagittarius>Sagittarius</a>

Where is the centre of the Milky Way, our Galaxy?

Jan Hendrik Oort calculated that the centre is in the direction of the constellation of Sagittarius . The centre of the Galaxy is commonly referred to as Sagittarius A*. It is estimated at a distance of 26,000 Light Years from Earth.

What is the difference between The Solar System, a Galaxy and the Universe?

A Solar System is the smallest of the three subject matter, it covers the area of a Star's Heliosphere. Inside the solar system is the star and all the orbiting Planets, Asteroids, etc. A solar system may not even contain any planets. A Galaxy is a grouping of stars made up of millions and billions of solar systems. The Universe is the biggest of all, it encompasses everything there is, including every galaxy, every star, all matter, everything full stop.

How far away is the centre of the Milky Way, our Galaxy?

The centre of the Galaxy is estimated at between 25,000 light years plus or minus a few thousand. We are at the edge of the galaxy so getting out of the Milky Way is quicker that getting to the centre. A light year is 5,878,625,373,183.608 miles, therefore the centre of the galaxy is very very far away.

What's the nearest and furthest Galaxy to us?

Excluding the Milky Way and its companion galaxies such as the Magellanic clouds (Large and Small), the nearest galaxy to us is the Andromeda Galaxy which is 2.5 million light years away. It won't always be the case though, whilst most galaxies are moving away from us, the Andromeda galaxy is moving towards us with an expected collision happening in approximately 4.5 Billion years time so you got nothing to worry about then. When the galaxy hits us, it is expected that the Milky Way may end up looking like the Tadpole Galaxy, in the constellation of Draco. It is 400 million light years away.

On the other end of the scale, the furthest galaxy so far discovered is known as GN-z11, a galaxy that is located in the constellation of Ursa Major. The galaxy is 32 Billion Light Years away, the light we are seeing from it now is light from its birth. There might be a further galaxy but its light will not have reached us yet.

How did the Milky Way got its name?

Different religions/regions have different views as to how the galaxy came into creation. The term comes from Roman/Greek mythology where after the birth of Heracles, Hera spilled her breast milk in anger of not being the baby's mother. Another variation says that it was spilled when Heracles was caught drinking Hera's milk and was pushed off. The word galaxy derives from the greek word for milk, gala. In the beginning, when they looked up at the stars they saw a cloudy/milky area hence the name.

What are the Galaxy Classification?

A galaxy may be referred to as a NGC or M number, what are they? Galaxies, Nebulas and star clusters were first catalogued by Charles Messier, a French Astronomer. His first catalogue consisted of45 was published in 1774 then grew to 103 in 1781 then finally 110. Later in 1880, the new General Catalogue was started by J.L.E.Dreyer using observations from Sir William Herschel. It contains nearly 8000 objects. Some objects can have both a M number and a NGC number as well. For example, the Andromeda Galaxy is known as both M31 and NGC224.

What is the largest Galaxy?

At the moment, the largest galaxy we know of is the IC 1101, an elliptical galaxy that is at the heart of a group of galaxies known as the Abell 2029 Galaxy Cluster. The galaxy was discovered by Sir William Herschel. The galaxy is estimated at being over 6 million light years in diameter with trillions of stars. To put that in context, the Milky Way is a 1/50th the size of the IC 1101. The IC 1101 can be seen in the constellation of Virgo.

What are the types of Galaxies

There are four main types of Galaxies, ( Spiral, Lenticular, Irregular and Elliptical ). There are subtypes as well, for example, clockwise spiral and anti-clockwise. The best way to explain the different types is to show you what they look like. The Andromeda galaxy is . Irregular Galaxies also include Starburst Galaxies and Ring Galaxies, example of the former is below. Irregulars lack any shape or definition that the other types do hence their name. Lenticular are said to be lens like in nature.

Spiral Galaxy - M31Lenticular - NGC2787
Elliptical Galaxy - M87Irregular Galaxy - M82

Galaxy Collision

Whilst most galaxies are currently moving away from us as a result of the Big Bang. The Andromeda Galaxy is currently on a collision course with the Milky Way. It is moving at a 75 miles a second. Whilst on Earth, that is a super fast speed, it space, it is not that fast considering how far away the Andromeda galaxy is from us. The Andromeda Galaxy is not expected to hit Milky Way for at least 3 billion years. In 3 billion years, the human race unless it has got off this planet will no longer exist because the Sun would have made the planet inhabitable. The below video is something that NASA shared on Youtube which explains more about galaxy merging and how the MIlky Way and Andromeda galaxy will merge.

Video of two galaxies (Andromeda and Milky Way) Colliding

NGC 5248Galaxy in a Group of Galaxies
NGC 5557Galaxy in a Group of Galaxies
NGC 69GalaxyAndromeda
NGC 7640GalaxyAndromeda
Le Gentil Satellite Galaxy of M31 (M32, NGC221)Satiellite Galaxy of M31Andromeda
Andromeda Galaxy (M31, NGC224)Spiral GalaxyAndromeda
Messier 110 (NGC205)Satiellite Galaxy of M31Andromeda
NGC 1000Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesAndromeda
NGC 184Spiral GalaxyAndromeda
NGC 1001Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesAndromeda
NGC 3125Starburst GalaxyAntlia
NGC 6962LINER-type Active Galaxy NucleusAquarius
NGC 7727GalaxyAquarius
NGC 6814Seyfert 1 GalaxyAquila
NGC 6215Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesAra
NGC 772Galaxy in a Pair of GalaxiesAries
NGC 691Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesAries
NGC 1156Dwarf Irregular GalaxyAries
3C 147Seyfert 1 GalaxyAuriga
NGC 5714Spiral GalaxyBootes
Caldwell 7Intermediate Spiral GalaxyCamelopardalis
NGC 2655Lenticular GalaxyCamelopardalis
NGC 1569Dwarf Irregular GalaxyCamelopardalis
NGC 2623GalaxyCancer
NGC 2535Unbarred Spiral GalaxyCancer
NGC 2536Barred Spiral GalaxyCancer
Whale GalaxyGalaxyCanes Venatici
IC883Starburst GalaxyCanes Venatici
Whirlpool Galaxy (M51, NGC5194)Spiral GalaxyCanes Venatici
Sunflower Galaxy (M63, NGC5055)Spiral GalaxyCanes Venatici
Messier 94 (NGC4736)Spiral GalaxyCanes Venatici
Messier 106 (NGC4258)Spiral GalaxyCanes Venatici
Cocoon GalaxyBarred Spiral GalaxyCanes Venatici
NGC 5195Galaxy in a Pair of GalaxiesCanes Venatici
Canis Major Dwarf GalaxyDwarf GalaxyCanis Major
NGC 6986Elliptical GalaxyCapricornus
NGC 147Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesCassiopeia
NGC4622Spiral GalaxyCentaurus
Centaurus ASeyfert 2 GalaxyCentaurus
NGC 2300Lenticular GalaxyCepheus
NGC 307Lenticular GalaxyCetus
NGC 355Lenticular GalaxyCetus
NGC 1065Elliptical GalaxyCetus
NGC 1055Spiral GalaxyCetus
NGC 1128Dumbell GalaxyCetus
IC 1613, Caldwell 51Irregular Dwarf GalaxyCetus
NGC 1015Barred Spiral GalaxyCetus
Messier 77 (NGC1068)Spiral GalaxyCetus
Darth Vader's Galaxy (NGC 936)Barred Lenticular GalaxyCetus
IRAS 14092-6506Seyfert GalaxyCircinus
NGC 1808Seyfert GalaxyColumba
IC 4107Low Surface Brightness GalaxyComa Berenices
BlackEye Galaxy (M64, NGC4826)Spiral GalaxyComa Berenices
Messier 91 (NGC4548)Spiral GalaxyComa Berenices
Messier 85 (NGC4382)Spiral GalaxyComa Berenices
Messier 88 (NGC4501)Spiral GalaxyComa Berenices
Messier 98 (NGC4192)Spiral GalaxyComa Berenices
Messier 99 (NGC4254)Spiral GalaxyComa Berenices
Messier 100 (NGC4321)Spiral GalaxyComa Berenices
Dragonfly 44GalaxyComa Berenices
NGC 4676Interacting GalaxyComa Berenices
NGC 4884Brightest Galaxy in a ClusterComa Berenices
NGC 6120GalaxyCorona Borealis
Antennae GalaxiesStarburst GalaxyCorvus
NGC 3546Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesCrater
Fireworks GalaxyHII GalaxyCygnus
Large Magellanic CloudDwarf GalaxyDorado
NGC 2020Lenticular GalaxyDorado
NGC 1672Seyfert GalaxyDorado
NGC6786Spiral GalaxyDraco
NGC6503Spiral GalaxyDraco
NGC 4319Spiral GalaxyDraco
NGC 5949Dwarf GalaxyDraco
NGC4589Elliptical GalaxyDraco
NGC 5965Spiral GalaxyDraco
Tadpole GalaxyBarred Spiral GalaxyDraco
Spindle Galaxy (M102)Lenticular or Spiral GalaxyDraco
NGC 4236Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesDraco
NGC 5906Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesDraco
NGC 5907Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesDraco
NGC 5963Emission-line GalaxyDraco
NGC 5981Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesDraco
NGC 6869GalaxyDraco
NGC 6478Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesDraco
NGC 6479GalaxyDraco
NGC 6552Seyfert GalaxyDraco
NGC 7015Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesEquuleus
NGC 1234Lenticular GalaxyEridanus
NGC 1300Barred Spiral GalaxyEridanus
NGC 1627GalaxyEridanus
NGC 1332Galaxy in a Pair of GalaxiesEridanus
NGC 1427AIrregular GalaxyEridanus
NGC 1309Spiral GalaxyEridanus
NGC 1316Giant Elliptical GalaxyFornax
NGC1365Seyfert GalaxyFornax
IC 335Lenticular GalaxyFornax
IC 5201Barred Spiral GalaxyGrus
NGC 6327GalaxyHercules
NGC 6050Interacting Spiral GalaxyHercules
A2261-BCG - Abelle 2261 Brightest Cluster GalaxyGalaxyHercules
NGC 1512Barred Spiral GalaxyHorologium
NGC 3309Giant Elliptical GalaxyHydra
Porpoise / Penguin GalaxyGalaxyHydra
NGC 4993Elliptical or Lenticular GalaxyHydra
Messier 83 (NGC5236)Spiral GalaxyHydra
NGC 2850GalaxyHydra
NGC 7049Lenticular GalaxyIndus
Messier 65 (NGC3623)Spiral GalaxyLeo
Messier 66 (NGC3627)Spiral GalaxyLeo
Messier 95 (NGC3351)Spiral GalaxyLeo
Messier 96 (NGC3368)Elliptical GalaxyLeo
Messier 105 (NGC3379)Elliptical GalaxyLeo
NGC 3384Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesLeo
NGC 3389Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesLeo
Bubble GalaxySpiral GalaxyLeo
NGC 3455Spiral GalaxyLeo
NGC 3810Spiral GalaxyLeo
NGC 3021Spiral GalaxyLeo Minor
NGC 1993Lenticular GalaxyLepus
NGC 5793Spiral GalaxyLibra
IC 2233Low Surface Brightness GalaxyLynx
NGC 2500Barred Spiral GalaxyLynx
NGC 2537Interacting GalaxyLynx
NGC 6703GalaxyLyra
NGC 2019Lenticular GalaxyMensa
NGC 6923Galaxy in a Pair of GalaxiesMicroscopium
NGC 6925Emission-line GalaxyMicroscopium
NGC 7098GalaxyOctans
IC 404Spiral GalaxyOrion
NGC 1975Lenticular GalaxyOrion
NGC6744Spiral GalaxyPavo
NGC 1Galaxy in a Pair of GalaxiesPegasus
NGC 7331GalaxyPegasus
NGC 7479Spiral GalaxyPegasus
NGC 7742Galaxy in a Pair of GalaxiesPegasus
NGC 7320GalaxyPegasus
Pegasus Dwarf Irregular GalaxyDwarf Irregular GalaxyPegasus
Pegasus Dwarf Spheroidal GalaxyDwarf Spheroidal GalaxyPegasus
NGC 1275Seyfert GalaxyPerseus
4C 37.11Seyfert GalaxyPerseus
NGC 1277Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesPerseus
NGC 625Active Galaxy NucleusPhoenix
NGC 1998Lenticular GalaxyPictor
ESO 121-6Spiral GalaxyPictor
NGC 524Lenticular GalaxyPisces
NGC 199Lenticular GalaxyPisces
NGC 498Lenticular GalaxyPisces
NGC 500Lenticular GalaxyPisces
NGC 509Lenticular GalaxyPisces
NGC 517Lenticular GalaxyPisces
NGC 60LINER-type Active Galaxy NucleusPisces
Messier 74 (NGC628)Spiral GalaxyPisces
NGC 2613Emission Line GalaxyPyxis
NGC 1559GalaxyReticulum
NGC 6822GalaxySagittarius
NGC 423Lenticular GalaxySculptor
NGC 7793Spiral GalaxySculptor
NGC 10Emission Line GalaxySculptor
Cartwheel GalaxyRing GalaxySculptor
NGC 24Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesSculptor
Hoag's ObjectRing GalaxySerpens
NGC 6027Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesSerpens
NGC 3115Lenticular GalaxySextans
NGC 3044Barred Spiral GalaxySextans
NGC 1410Seyfert 2 GalaxyTaurus
NGC 6861Lenticular GalaxyTelescopium
NGC 6870Galaxy in a Pair of GalaxiesTelescopium
The Triangulum Galaxy (M33, NGC598)Spiral GalaxyTriangulum
NGC 1002Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesTriangulum
Small Magellanic CloudDwarf GalaxyTucana
NGC 2787Lenticular GalaxyUrsa Major
NGC 3982Intermediate Spiral GalaxyUrsa Major
ARP 214 (NGC3178)GalaxyUrsa Major
GN-z11GalaxyUrsa Major
NGC 2841Unbarred Spiral GalaxyUrsa Major
Bode's Galaxy (M81, NGC3031)Spiral GalaxyUrsa Major
Cigar Galaxy (M82, NGC3034)Irregular GalaxyUrsa Major
Messier 108 (NGC3556)Spiral GalaxyUrsa Major
Messier 109 (NGC3992)Spiral GalaxyUrsa Major
Pinwheel Galaxy (M101, NGC5457)Spiral GalaxyUrsa Major
NGC 3550Lenticular GalaxyUrsa Major
NGC 3558Lenticular GalaxyUrsa Major
NGC 4290Radio GalaxyUrsa Major
NGC 3718Galaxy in a Pair of GalaxiesUrsa Major
NGC 3726Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesUrsa Major
NGC 3938Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesUrsa Major
NGC 3953Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesUrsa Major
NGC 4096Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesUrsa Major
NGC 2768Seyfert GalaxyUrsa Major
NGC 3471Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesUrsa Major
NGC 3077Small Galaxy (Peculiar)Ursa Major
NGC 3972Galaxy in a Pair of GalaxiesUrsa Major
NGC4013Spiral GalaxyUrsa Major
NGC 6217Barred Spiral GalaxyUrsa Minor
NGC 3256Peculiar GalaxyVela
IC 1101Elliptical GalaxyVirgo
Messier 89 (NGC4552)Elliptical GalaxyVirgo
Messier 90 (NGC4569)Spiral GalaxyVirgo
Messier 86 (NGC4406)Lenticular GalaxyVirgo
Messier 87 (NGC4486)Elliptical GalaxyVirgo
Sombrero Galaxy (M104, NGC4594)Spiral GalaxyVirgo
Messier 84 (NGC4374)Lenticular GalaxyVirgo
Messier 49 (NGC4472)Elliptical GalaxyVirgo
Messier 58 (NGC4579)Spiral GalaxyVirgo
Messier 59 (NGC4621)Elliptical GalaxyVirgo
Messier 60 (NGC4649)Elliptical GalaxyVirgo
Messier 61 (NGC4303)Spiral GalaxyVirgo
NGC 4425Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesVirgo
NGC 4443GalaxyVirgo
NGC 4526Lenticular GalaxyVirgo
NGC4458Elliptical GalaxyVirgo
NGC4660Elliptical GalaxyVirgo
NGC5257HII GalaxyVirgo
NGC 4522Galaxy in a Group of GalaxiesVirgo
IC 1011Barred Spiral GalaxyVirgo
NGC 2466GalaxyVolans

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Sunil TirkeyTuesday, 12th September 2017 5:19:54 AM
I want to know about Multiverse.Source of existence of Light,Gravitational Force, Interaction of antimatter with matter,space, time and light.
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