Universe Guide

Aliens, Earth and Space Facts

Alien/UFO "Facts"

Alien Encounters and AbductionsWhat would it be like to encounter an alien and what are the different types of encounters?
Aliens and Ancient CivilisationsHave aliens already been here on Earth and left their technology with ancient people such as the Aztecs, Incas and the Egyptians? Some people think so, here`s the UG view.
Aliens, Extra-Terrestrial Life FormsAliens, what are they? Where are they? Are they here? Finding alien life will solve the greatest question we have asked, are we alone?
Area 51, America's Secret UFO BaseArea 51 is the common name for the United States secret experimental facility officially known as Groom Lake. It is suspected that the U.S. Air Force holds alien technology.
What are our expections of Aliens?What do we expect aliens too look like and will they be friendly.
What is an U.F.O. - Unidentified Flying Object?U.F.O. referred to by experts mean something that cannot be explained, it could be a plane but the experts have not identified it. Non-experts refer to UFO to being unworldly.
What is the Drake Equation?The Drake Equation was devised by Frank Drake, a scientist to attempt to work out how many possible aliens there might be out there in the Universe.
Where to find AliensHow do we go about finding aliens in the galaxy and further afield.

Earth Facts

CloudsClouds on Earth are groups of water droplets held high in the Earths atmosphere. On other planets such as Venus, clouds can consist of other materials such as nitrogen and hydrogen.
Dinosaurs and Prehistoric AnimalsDinosaurs and prehistoric monsters are a group of different types of lizard like creatures that lived hundreds of millions of years ago before humans. They are believed to have been wiped out by a m
Global Warming / Climate Change / Greenhouse EffectClimate Change refers to minor changes to the temperature of the planet, even though the temperature will change, the result effects will have a massive affect on the environment.
Human Overpopulation on EarthOverpopulation refers to there being too many people in such a small space. Even though the Earth is large, the resources that sustain us are dwindling and we need to look for new resources.
Micro-OrganismsMicro-organisms are the smallest forms of life (bacteria) or non-life (virus because they can`t reproduce on their own) that can cause disease that can survive in extremely inhospitable places.
Renewable EnergyRenewable Energy is the generation of electricity through clean materials that leave little or no waste and do not harm the environment. Renewable energy can be generated from Wind, Solar, Water
RiverTowns have always been located near a river as its a means to gets goods to a town in a relatively quicker. The longest river in the world is Amazon in South America.
The Big Bang, The Beginning of the UniverseWhat does the futue hold in store, it can be hypothesised but no one knows for certain. The future could be positive (Star Wars) or negative (Mad Max), the futue will tell.
The End of Life on EarthAll life on Earth will end one day, it might be when the Sun explodes at the end of its life but it could end sooner as the result of one or another possible scenario such as meteorite strike.
The FutureWhat does the futue hold in store, it can be hypothesised but no one knows for certain. The future could be positive (Star Wars) or negative (Mad Max), the futue will tell.
What where the Earth's Mass Extinctions?Throughout history, there have been five mass extinctions, not just limited to the Dinosaurs. Extinctions have ranged from meteorite strike to changes to the weather, an ice age.

Space Facts

Absolute, Apparent and Visual MagnitudesStar brightness is measured in magnitudes, the more negative the number, the brighter the star. Apparent magnitude is the measurement of how the star is seen from Earth.
Asteroid Belt, Near Earth ObjectsAsteroids are remants of the destruction of a planet or a planet that never managed to full form between Mars and Jupiter many millions of years ago.
Binary Systems and Multiple Star SystemsSome stars aren`t solo like our Sun, they have companion stars orbiting them such as Algieba. The major star could have one, two or even upto as many eight or more. Tatooine could be real.
ConstellationsA constellation is a group of stars that make a recognisable shape, e.g. Ursa Major. The original list of 48 constellations was created by Greek Astronomer Ptolemy in 140A.D.
Cosmic Collisions (Moon, Satellites, Jupiter, Solar, Galaxy)Cosmic Collisions can range in size from the smallest particles to the largest, galaxies and even universe. They can affect the lives of humans such as the creation of the Moon.
D Type White Dwarf and Giant StarsWhite Dwarf stars are remnants of a star when it has gone supernova and is all what is left.
Dark Energy and MatterDark Energy and Matter is stuff that makes up a large part of the universe but we cannot see. The race is on to find the first signs of these mysterious objects.
Dwarf Stars (White, Black, Brown, Red, Yellow, Orange)A Dwarf Star is the most common type of star in the universe. Stars are grouped in two types, Dwarf such as our own Sun and Giant Stars that can be many times bigger than the Earth such as Antares.
Elliptical Galaxy
European Space AgencyThe European Space Agency is a collaboration of countries that have polled their resources together to advance their knowledge of space.
ExoComet, Comets in other Star systemsExocomets are comets that orbit stars other than the Sun.
Extrasolar Jupiters (Hot/Super)Hot-Jupiters are planets that orbit close to their star whereas Super-Jupiters are exoplanets that are many times more massive that Jupiter.
Extrasolar Planet (Exoplanet)Exoplanets are planets that orbit other stars in the universe. We have discovered thousands but they are all out of reach for our rockets to visit any. Exoplanets increase the likelihood of aliens.
Faster Than Light TravelThe Universe will End one day but not for trillions and trillions of years, how it will end is open to a number of competing theories which we will look at on this page.
Franken-Galaxy, Ghost-Galaxy, Cannibal-GalaxyNot all galaxies are stable galaxies, some including our own galaxy are monsters compared to others.
G Type Stars - Yellow Dwarf and Giant StarsYellow Stars are stars like our Sun that have a life span of 10 billion years, our Sun is half way through its life.
Gravity, the Force of Nature that Keeps us GroundedGravity is the weakest of the four forces, the others are Weak Nuclear, Strong Nuclear and Electromagnetic. Gravity is what keeps us on the ground rather than floating in the air.
How are Stars Named and DesignatedStars names and designations follow standard practices and ever wondered why stars are named HIP, HD or Gliese?
Hyper, Super and Normal Giant StarsGaint stars are stars that are many times the size of our Star, most of which are at the end of their lives such as Antares which will one day go out in a supernova.
Hypervelocity Stars, Super-Fast Moving StarsHypervelocity stars are stars that move through space faster than other stars. They are normally stars that have been ejected from a multiple star system.
International Space StationThe International Space Station is the result of the collaborative work of nations to put a station into orbit around the Earth. The main users of the ISS are the Russians and the United States.
K Type Stars - Orange Dwarf and Giant StarsBlue Star are the hottest types of stars. Blue Dwarf stars are hypothetical stars of what happens when a Red Dwarf runs out of fuel to convert.
Life on other Planets and Moons in the Solar SystemThe Universe will End one day but not for trillions and trillions of years, how it will end is open to a number of competing theories which we will look at on this page.
Living in SpaceWouldn`t it be great to live in space, either on spacestation or on the moon or another planet such as Mars or further a field. We`d probably have to terraform the planet if we could.
M Type Stars - Red Dwarf and Giant StarsRed stars are cool stars that can be giant or small stars. Red Dwarf Stars make up the majority of stars out there.
Meteorite Incidents (Tunguska and Chelyabinsk)The most famous major meteroite strikes in the recent past have both been in Russia, Tunguska in the East and the more populated Chelyabinsk in the west and is the more recent of the two.
Meteors, Meteorites and MeteoroidsAn object in space that is heading towards Earth is called a Meteroid, when it enters the atmosphere, it is a Meteor and when it crashes to Earth, it is a meteorite.
Milkomeda, merger of the Milky Way and Andromeda GalaxiesMilkomeda galaxy is the future end result of the collision between the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies.
Moon, Planet's Natural SatellitesMoons are naturally orbiting objects round a planet as opposed to an artificial satellite that scientists build and place round planets. The Moon is a Moon that orbits the Earth.
Multiverse and Parallel Universe / Worlds TheoryHave you ever wondered what life had been like if you had caught that number 16 bus the other day, another you did. There are a unlimited numbers of you doing the other decisions you might have made.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (N.A.S.A.)National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the main space agency of the United States, responsible for putting satellites and astronauts into space and space exploration and research.
Nebulas (Star-Forming, Reflection, Planetary, Supernova, Dark)Nebula`s are giant areas of dust and cloud that can be put into one of five groups which are star forming, reflection, planetary, supernova remnant and dark.
Nemesis, Earth's Evil Twin SunNemesis is a theorized twin star of the Sun that its supporters believe could be responsible for the mass extinctions through the lifetime of the Earth.
O, B, A Type Stars - Blue Dwarf and Giant StarsBlue Star are the hottest types of stars. Blue Dwarf stars are hypothetical stars of what happens when a Red Dwarf runs out of fuel to convert.
Oldest and Earliest StarsSome of the oldest and earliest stars in the universe are as old as the universe give or take a few million years. Methuselah Star is the widely recognised oldest star at the moment.
Open and Globular Star ClustersSome stars are grouped together with in galaxies such as the Pleiades in Taurus. Clusters can be Globular or Open and contain hundreds of stars together in a cluser.
Ophiuchus, the thirteenth Zodiac Star SignOphiuchus, the Serpent Wrestler is seen as the thirteenth sign of the Zodiac but is shunned by Astrologers who are only interested in the original twelve signs of the Zodiac.
PlanetA planet is a large spherical object that orbits round a star. They can be either a rock planet as Earth or a gas giant such as Jupiter. A planet can have any number of orbitting moons round it.
Possible Ultimate End of the Universe TheoriesThe Universe will End one day but not for trillions and trillions of years, how it will end is open to a number of competing theories which we will look at on this page.
Pulsars, Neutron Stars and MagnetarsA pulsar is a small star made of neutrons that rotate rapidly shooting off a beam of radiation. The neutron star at the centre of the pulsar can be tiny but expend such a large amount of energy.
Space ExplorationA list of major milestones up to 2004
Spaceflight PioneersWhat does the futue hold in store, it can be hypothesised but no one knows for certain. The future could be positive (Star Wars) or negative (Mad Max), the futue will tell.
Spiral Galaxy
Stars of Horror (Vampire, Zombie, Rogue, Gamma-Ray Bursts)What does the futue hold in store, it can be hypothesised but no one knows for certain. The future could be positive (Star Wars) or negative (Mad Max), the futue will tell.
Sub, Super and Hospitable EarthsSub, Super and Hospitable Earths are exoplanets that could very well support life like here on Earth but they could also be larger or smaller than Earth.
Supernovae and their RemnantsWhen a star has used up all its fuel, it can go supernova, the star could explode and result in in a supernova remnant.
T, L, Y Type Stars - Brown Dwarf StarBrown Star are the coolest star, normally referred to as failed stars. Brown Stars are hard to detect because they are dark in colour.
TESS - Transiting Exoplanet Survey SatelliteTESS is the name of a N.A.S.A. satellite sent in to space for a two year journey to discover thousands of exoplanets in the galaxy.
The Milky Way, Our GalaxyThe Milky Way is the name given to the galaxy that contains the Earth. It is currently on a collision course with the bigger galaxy Andromeda at 75 miles a second.
The Moon, Earth's Natural SatelliteThe Moon is a natural body that orbits our Sun and without it our planet would be unstable and have no tides. It is vital for our survival.
The Solar SystemThe Milky Way is the name given to the galaxy that contains the Earth. It is currently on a collision course with the bigger galaxy Andromeda at 75 miles a second.
The Space RaceThe Space Race is the era after the second world war that saw the United State of America and the U.S.S.R. compete for supremacy of space.
The Sun, our Solar Sytem's StarThe Sun is the star that is at the centre of Solar System, it is a massive ball of hydrogen undergoing chemical reaction being turned into hydrogen.
Time TravelWhilst we all time travel into the future, it could be great is we could jump into the past or jump more than a second into the future.
UniverseThe Universe is everything, all the stars, the planets and everything. It might be one of many in the multiverse.
Universe Questions - Human ExplorationShort, straight to the point questions and answers to matters of the space exploration.
Unnova, Failed SupernovaAn Unnova or Failed Supernova is when a star is unable to explode, instead, it falls back on itself and becomes a black hole.
Vampire, Cannibal and Blue Straggler StarsA Vampire Star is a star that is leeching hydrogen and energy from a close and nearby star. The Vampire star acts in the same way as a supernatural vampire, leeching blood from its victim.
Variable Star (Eruptive, Pulsating, Eclipsing, Irregular, Cataclysmic)Unlike our static sun, some stars undo changes in their size and shape, i.e. bulging at the centre. There are different types of variable star and they can vary greatly in size between phases.
What are Artificial Satellites?A Satellite is an object in space that is either natural such as a moon or artificial, put there by humans. The term satellite tends to refer to artificial satellites that we humans put into space.
What are Carbon Stars?Carbon Stars are mainly red giants which have more carbon in their atmosphere than oxygen.
What are Comet, the Universe's Dirty Snowballs?Comets are known as dirty snowballs because they consist of a lot of ice and stuff. They are believed to been thousands of such comets in the Oort Cloud over a light year from the Sun.
What are Flare Stars?Flare Stars are variable stars that can undergo dramatic changes to their brightness,
What are FU Orionis stars?FU Orionis stars are named after the first of its kind in the constellation of Orion. These are pre-main sequence stars that exhibit a rapid increase in magnitude before slowing reducing.
What are Main Sequence Stars?A main sequence star is star that is fusing hydrogen into helium.
What are Meteor Showers?Meteor Shower is a sudden burst of Meteors hitting the atmosphere and burning up. Meteor Showers are normally caused by the Earth passing through debris from a comet or an asteroid.
What are Protostars? A Protostar is the first stage of a star, not yet
What are Quasars and Blazars and whats the difference?A Quasar is the extremely active centre of some galaxies that tend to be located at the very edge of the observable universe and ten to be very old compared to local galaxies.
What are Quasi-Star, Hypothetical Massive Stars?A Quasi-Star is a massive early star when the Universe was first born. Quasi-stars are no longer thought to exist.
What are Reflection Nebulas?Relection Nebulas such as the Witch-Head Nebula are nebulas of gas and dust that reflect light from nearby sources rather than the source being part of the nebula as in the case of emission nebulas.
What are Rogue Stars?Rogue stars can be stars that do not follow the standard path of normal stars round the galaxy or ones that have escaped the galaxy altogether.
What are S-Type Stars?S-Type stars are stars that are giant stars which have a roughy equal amount of Carbon and Oxygen in their atmosphere.
What are Solar Flares?Solar flares are when the Sun ejects a large amount of plasma. They can occur at any time and have the power to cause disruptions to the Earth satellites and the power lines.
What are T Tauri Stars?T Tauri stars take their name from the first star discovered of its type. They are pre-main sequence stars that are typically about three solar masses.
What are Thorne-Zytkow Objects (Hybrid Stars)?Thorne-Zytkow Objects also known as Hybrid Stars are a hypothetical star consisting of a large giant star with a neutron star at the heart. None have so far been discovered yet, only a suspected hybrid star.
What is a Black Dwarf Star?Black Dwarf Stars are hypothetical stars that are when white dwarf stars cool down after a considerable amount of time.
What is a Black Hole?A black hole is a collapsed star that has so much gravity nothing can escape from its pull including light. Once pulled into the centre, it is believed you will crushed to atoms.
What is a Crop Circle?Crop circles since their earliest appearance have facinated many and been ignored and put down as fakes from sceptics. Some say they are signs from other worldly visits want to make contact.
What is a Dark Nebula?Dark Nebula's also known as Absorption Nebulas are large clouds of dust and gas that block light coming from behind them. They can best be seen in areas of brght light surrounding them such as with the Horsehead Nebula.
What is a Galaxy?A galaxy is a large grouping of stars that orbit round what is believed to a supermassive black hole. The galaxy that we are in is called the Milky Way and is a small galaxy compared to Andromedas.
What is a Gamma Ray Burst?Gamma-Ray Bursts are bursts of energy in the form of Gamma-Rays that are short and must be directed at a star or planet in order to affect them, they aren`t fired off in all directions.
What is a Lenticular Galaxy?Lenticular Galaxies are a type of galaxy that is between Elliptical and Barred Spiral
What is a Luminous Blue Variable Star?Luminous Blue Variables are large blue stars that are highly luminous, in other words they emmit a large amount of energy.
What is a Planetary Nebula?Planetary Nebulas are areas of gas that are created as a result of a dying star. Despite their name, they have nothing in common with planets.
What is a Rogue Planet?A Rogue Planet is a planet that is not in orbit around a star but is free-floating in the galaxy or in intergalatic space. Rogue Planets have been spotted for example, in Ophiuchus.
What is a Satellite Galaxy?A satellite galaxy is a small dwarf galaxy that orbits a much larger galaxy. An example of a satellite galaxy is the Large Magellanic Cloud that orbits the Milky Way galaxy.
What is a Seyfert Galaxy?A Seyfert Galaxy is a galaxy whose luminosity changes over time. Their existance was spotted by Carl Seyfert, an American Astronomer.
What is a Star?The simpliest way to describe a star is that it is a great ball of fire but it is a little more complicated that than. A star is a giant ball of hydrogen turning into helium through nuclear fusion.
What is a Starburst GalaxyA Starburst galaxy such as the Antennae Galaxies is a galaxy that undergoes a sudden burst of star formation. There are a few reasons but the most likely is the result of two or more galaxies colliding or influencing one another by gravity.
What is a Supermassive Black Hole?Supermassive Black Holes are the centres of galaxies, probably created by a Quasi-star going supernova.
What is a Wolf-Rayet Star?Wolf-Rayet stars are stars that are no longer fusing hydrogen but are now fusing helium or more heavier elements such as nitrogen or carbon. The nearest star is Regor in Vela constellation.
What is a Zombie Star?A Zombie star is created when a star goes supernova but instead of obliteration, it re-invents itself as a zombie star and can come back to life by leaching nearby stars and planets.
What is an Eclipse (Lunar and Solar)?Eclipses have occurred throughout the history of the Earth and the Moon. An eclipse occurs when the Earth blocks the Moon (Lunar) or the Moon blocks the Earth (Solar) from the Sun.
What is an Emission Nebula?An Emission Nebula is a cloud of dust and gas in space that shine naturally, due to the gas being lit up by a light source within the nebula. Planetary Nebula's are a form of Emission Nebula.
What is an F Type (Yellow/White) Stars?F Spectral Type Stars are white main sequence stars that are roughly in the middle of the Hertzsprung-Russel table of stars. As stars emit light in a range of colours, if the were solo coloured, they might actually be green.
What is an Irregular Galaxy?An Irregular Galaxy is a galaxy that doesn't fit into the other forms of galaxy, that is Lenticular, Spherical and Elliptical. Most are small and for some, their shapes are caused by the interaction of galaxies.</p>
What is Dwarf Planet?Dwarf Planets are a class of planet that might satisfy some of the requirements to be a planet but not all. Pluto is the most well known Dwarf Planet, having been downgraded in a vote by the I.A.U. in 2006.
What is The Kuiper Belt and Trans-Neptunian Objects?The Kuiper Belt is a belt of asteroids at the edge of the universe. Kuiper Belt objects are also know as Trans-Neptunian Objects as they are outside the orbit of the Neptune.
What is the Oort Cloud, Hypothesized Area of Comets?The Oort Cloud is a theoretical mass of comets about 1 light year from Earth. Also known as the Oort-Opik Cloud is named after Astronomers Jan Hendrik Oort and Ernst Opik.
Women in SpaceWomen have been as interested in space as much as their male counterparts but haven`t had the same opportunity to go into space as their male colleagues.
Wormhole Theory (Lorentzian, Schwarzschild, Euclidean)Wormholes are a theorized portal connecting two parts of the galaxy or universe. With the great distances between Earth and other stars, a wormhole could provide a shortcut to other solar systems.

Space Probes

Cassini-Huygens Spacecraft, Mission to SaturnComets are known as dirty snowballs because they consist of a lot of ice and stuff. They are believed to been thousands of such comets in the Oort Cloud over a light year from the Sun.
Hubble Space TelescopeThe Hubble Space Telescope was the first space based telescope put into space by N.A.S.A. with help from E.S.A. It is named after Edwin Hubble who discovered galaxies were outside the Milky Way and one of the first proponents of the Big Bang Theory.
New Horizons mission to PlutoNew Horizons is the name for the NASA mission to Pluto, our once nineth planet in the solar system. It is the first visit to the once outer most planet in the solar system and may explore further.
Pioneer 10 and 11 Probes to Outer SpaceThe Pioneer space probes were launched into NASA in the early seventies to travel out to the furthest parts of our solar system and beyond. They are no longer monitored by NASA.
Rosetta Space Probe, Rendezvous with a CometRosetta Space Probe is an European Space Agency mission to land a probe on a comet to find out whether humanity was seeded on this planet by the contents of a comet.
Voyager Space ProbesVoyager is the name of two deep space space probes that were sent into space in the 70`s. They have travelled further than any other probes and are still returning information back to NASA,.
What is the Kepler Space Telescope?Kepler Space Telescope is a satellite that was put in orbit to study a region of space in Cygnus for exoplanets and it was succesful in finding thousands.

U.F.O. Sightings

What happened at Roswell, New Mexico IncidentRoswell, New Mexico is the most famous incident of an alledge UFO crash. Roswell is located near the Walker Air Force Base, at the time one of the major air bases in the United States.
What happened in Rendlesham Forest, Suffolk?Rendlesham Forest Incident is an UFO incident that occurred near the U.S air force base RAF Woodbridge near Rendlesham, Suffolk, United Kingdom.


1MercuryMessenger of the GodsRocky
2VenusGoddess of LoveRocky
4MarsGod of WarRocky
5JupiterKing of GodsGas
6SaturnGod of TimeGas
7UranusFather of SaturnGas
8NeptuneGod of the SeaGas
9PlutoGod of DeathDwarf

Famous People

Full NameNationalityGenderDate of BirthDate of DeathOccupation
Edmund Halley, SirBritishMale29/10/165614/1/1742Astronomer
Johann Gottfried GalleGermanMale8/6/181210/7/1910Astronomer
William Herschel, SirGerman/BritishMale15/11/173825/8/1822Astronomer
Isaac Newton, SirBritishMale25/12/164220/3/1727Scientist/Astronomer
H.G. WellsBritishMale21/9/186613/8/1946Author
Iain M. BanksBritishMale16/2/1954Author
Isaac AsimovRussianMale2/1/19206/4/1992Author
Jules VerneFrenchMales8/2/192824/3/1905Author
Peter F. HamiltonBritishMale2/3/1960Author
Philip K. DicksAmericanMale16/12/19202/3/1960Author
C.S. LewisBritishMale29/11/189822/11/1963Author
Harry TurtledoveAmericanMale14/6/1949Author
Albert EinsteinAmericanMale14/3/187918/4/1955Scientist
Clyde TombaughAmericanMale4/2/190617/1/1997Astronomer
Neil ArmstrongAmericanMale5/8/193020/8/2012Astronaut
Yuri Alekseyevich GagarinRussianMale9/4/193427/3/1968Cosmonaut
Terry PratchettBritishMale28/4/1948Author
Thomas Keith GlennanAmericanMale8/9/190511/4/1995N.A.S.A. Administrator
George Walton LucasAmericanMale14/5/1944Film Producer
Eugene Wesley RoddenberryAmericanMale19/8/192124/10/1991Film and Television Producer
Sally RideAmericanFemale26/5/196123/7/2012Astronaut
Galileo GalileiItalianMale15/2/15648/1/1642Astronomer
Charles MessierFrenchMale26/6/173012/4/1817Astronomer
Helen SharmanBritishFemale30/4/1963Astronaut
Valentina TereshkovaBritishFemale6/3/1937Cosmonaut
John Flamsteed, SirBritishMale19/8/164631/12/1719Astronomer
Thomas HendersonBritishMale28/12/179823/11/1844Astronomer
James WebbAmericanMale7/10/190627/3/1992N.A.S.A. Administrator
Johann KeplerGermanMale27/12/157115/11/1630Astronomer
Patrick MooreBritishMale4/3/19239/12/2012Astronomer and Presenter
Brian MayBritishMale19/7/1947Astronomer and Muscian.
Nicolaus CopernicusPolishMale19/2/147324/5/1543Astronomer
Arthur C. ClarkeBritishMale16/12/194719/3/2008Author
Frank HerbertAmericanMale8/10/192011/2/1986Author
JRR TolkeinBritishMale3/1/18922/9/1973Author


CraftNationalityFirst Flew
ApolloAmericanOctober 11th 1968
GeminiAmericanAugust 21, 1965
MercuryAmericanMay 5th, 1961
SoyuzRussianNovember 21st, 1988
SpaceshuttleAmericanApril 12th, 1981
VoskhodRussianMarch 18th, 1965
VostokRussianApril 12th, 1961
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