Barnard's Star is a subdwarf star that can be located in the constellation of Ophiuchus. The star can not be seen by the naked eye, you need a telescope to see it.
HIP87937 is the reference name for the star in the Hipparcos Star Catalogue. The Gliese ID of the star is Gliese GL699. The star was part of the original catalogue devised by German Astronomer Wilheim Gliese of stars located within 20 parsecs of Earth. Ref : Star Names.
Barnard's Star has alternative name(s), V2500 Ophiuchi , .
The location of the star in the galaxy is determined by the Right Ascension (R.A.) and Declination (Dec.), these are equivalent to the Longitude and Latitude on the Earth. The Right Ascension is how far expressed in time (hh:mm:ss) the star is along the celestial equator. If the R.A. is positive then its eastwards. The Declination is how far north or south the star is compared to the celestial equator and is expressed in degrees. For Barnard's Star, the location is 17h 57m 48.97 and +04d 40` 05.8 .
All stars like planets orbit round a central spot, in the case of planets, its the central star such as the Sun. In the case of a star, its the galactic centre. The constellations that we see today will be different than they were 50,000 years ago or 50,000 years from now. Proper Motion details the movements of these stars and are measured in milliarcseconds. The star is moving 10,328.12 ± 1.01 miliarcseconds/year towards the north and -798.58 ± 1.51 miliarcseconds/year east if we saw them in the horizon. The Radial Velocity, that is the speed at which the star is moving away/towards us is -110.51000 km/s with an error of about 0.10 km/s .
Barnard's Star has a spectral type of sdM4. This means the star is a subdwarf star. The star is 7398.00000000 Parsecs from the Galactic Centre or terms of Light Years is 24129.5641891200000000s. The star has a B-V Colour Index of 1.57 which means the star's temperature has been calculated using information from Morgans @ Uni.edu at being 3,854 Kelvin.
Barnard's Star Radius has been calculated as being 0.05 times bigger than the Sun.The Sun's radius is 695,800km, therefore the star's radius is an estimated 32,766.83.km. However with the 2007 release of updated Hipparcos files, the radius is now calculated at being round 0.05. The figure is derived at by using the formula from SDSS and has been known to produce widely incorrect figures. The star's Iron Abundance is -0.15 with an error value of 9.99 Fe/H with the Sun has a value of 1 to put it into context.
Barnard's Star has an apparent magnitude of 9.54 which is how bright we see the star from Earth. Apparent Magnitude is also known as Visual Magnitude. If you used the 1997 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of 13.24 If you used the 2007 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of 13.24. Magnitude, whether it be apparent/visual or absolute magnitude is measured by a number, the smaller the number, the brighter the Star is. Our own Sun is the brightest star and therefore has the lowest of all magnitudes, -26.74. A faint star will have a high number.
Using the original Hipparcos data that was released in 1997, the parallax to the star was given as 549.01 which gave the calculated distance to Barnard's Star as 5.94 light years away from Earth or 1.82 parsecs. It would take a spaceship travelling at the speed of light, 5.94 years to get there. We don't have the technology or spaceship that can carry people over that distance yet.
In 2007, Hipparcos data was revised with a new parallax of 548.31 which put Barnard's Star at a distance of 5.95 light years or 1.82 parsecs. It should not be taken as though the star is moving closer or further away from us. It is purely that the distance was recalculated.
The star's Galacto-Centric Distance is 7,398.00 Parsecs or 24,129.56 Light Years. The Galacto-Centric Distance is the distance from the star to the Centre of the Galaxy which is Sagittarius A*.
The source of the information if it has a Hip I.D. is from Simbad, the Hipparcos data library based at the University at Strasbourg, France. Hipparcos was a E.S.A. satellite operation launched in 1989 for four years. The items in red are values that I've calculated so they could well be wrong. Information regarding Metallicity and/or Mass is from the E.U. Exoplanets. The information was obtained as of 12th Feb 2017.
|Traditional/Proper Name||Barnard's Star|
|Alternative Name(s)||V2500 Ophiuchi|
|Hipparcos Library I.D.||87937|
|Bonner Durchmusterung||BD+04 3561a|
|Star Type||subdwarf star|
|Absolute Magnitude||13.24 / 13.24|
|Visual / Apparent Magnitude||9.54|
|Naked Eye Visible||Requires a 7x50 Binoculars - Magnitudes|
|Right Ascension (R.A.)||17h 57m 48.97|
|Declination (Dec.)||+04d 40` 05.8|
|Galactic Latitude||14.05 degrees|
|Galactic Longitude||30.99 degrees|
|1997 Distance from Earth||549.01 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|5.94 Light Years|
|2007 Revised Distance from Earth||548.31 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|5.95 Light Years|
|Galacto-Centric Distance||24,129.56 Light Years / 7,398.00 Parsecs|
|Proper Motion Dec.||10328.12 ± 1.01 milliarcseconds/year|
|Proper Motion RA.||-798.58 ± 1.51 milliarcseconds/year|
|Radial Velocity||-110.51 ± 0.10 km/s|
|Iron Abundance||-0.15 ± 9.99 Fe/H|
|Calculated Effective Temperature||3,854 Kelvin|
The map was generated using Night Vision, an awesome free application by Brian Simpson.