Beta Ceti (Bet Cet) is the Bayer Classification for the star. The Bayer Classification was created by Johann Bayer in the early nineteenth century. The brightest star in the constellation is normally given the Alpha designation although there are exceptions such as Pollux which is Beta Geminorum.
The Id of the star in the Yale Bright Star Catalogue is HR188. HIP3419 is the reference name for the star in the Hipparcos Star Catalogue. The Id of the star in the Henry Draper catalogue is HD4128. The Gliese ID of the star is GL 31. The star was part of the original catalogue devised by German Astronomer Wilheim Gliese of stars located within 20 parsecs of Earth. Star Names
Diphda has alternative name(s) :- Deneb Kaitos, NSV 00272. In Arabic, it is known as Ad-Difdi'.
Flamsteed designations are named after the creator, Sir John Flamsteed. Sir John numbered the stars in the constellation with a number and the latin name, this star's Flamsteed designation is 16 Ceti with it shortened to 16 Cet.
The Gould star designation is one that was designed by American astronomer, Benjamin Apthorp Gould. Gould stars are predominantly in the Southern and Equatorial constellations but do appear in northern constellations such as Bootes and Orion. The star has the designation 70 G. Ceti. There are no stars with a Gould designation in Ursa Major for example.
BD number is the number that the star was filed under in the Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung, a star catalogue that was put together by the Bonn Observatory between 1859 to 1903. The star's BD Number is BD-18 115.
More details on objects' alternative names can be found at Star Names .
The location of the giant star in the night sky is determined by the Right Ascension (R.A.) and Declination (Dec.), these are equivalent to the Longitude and Latitude on the Earth. The Right Ascension is how far expressed in time (hh:mm:ss) the star is along the celestial equator. If the R.A. is positive then its eastwards. The Declination is how far north or south the object is compared to the celestial equator and is expressed in degrees. For Diphda, the location is 00h 43m 35.23 and -17° 59` 12.1 .
All stars like planets orbit round a central spot, in the case of planets, its the central star such as the Sun. In the case of a star, its the galactic centre. The constellations that we see today will be different than they were 50,000 years ago or 50,000 years from now. Proper Motion details the movements of these stars and are measured in milliarcseconds. The star is moving 31.99 ± 0.12 milliarcseconds/year towards the north and 232.55 ± 0.16 milliarcseconds/year east if we saw them in the horizon.
The Radial Velocity, that is the speed at which the star is moving away/towards the Sun is 13.10 km/s with an error of about 0.10 km/s . When the value is negative then the star and the Sun are getting closer to one another, likewise, a positive number means that two stars are moving away. Its nothing to fear as the stars are so far apart, they won't collide in our life-time, if ever.
Luminosity is the amount of energy that a star pumps out and its relative to the amount that our star, the Sun gives out. The figure of 163.46 that I have given is based on the value in the Simbad Hipparcos Extended Catalogue at the University of Strasbourg from 2012.
Diphda has a spectral type of K0III. This means the star is a orange to red giant star. The star has a B-V Colour Index of 1 which means the star's temperature has been calculated using information from Morgans @ Uni.edu at being 4,849 Kelvin.
Radius has been calculated as being 15.19 times bigger than the Sun. The Sun's radius is 695,800km, therefore the star's radius is an estimated 10,570,277.95.km. If you need the diameter of the star, you just need to multiple the radius by 2. However with the 2007 release of updated Hipparcos files, the radius is now calculated at being round 15.26. The figure is derived at by using the formula from SDSS and has been known to produce widely incorrect figures. The star's Iron Abundance is 0.02 with an error value of 9.99 Fe/H with the Sun has a value of 1 to put it into context.
Diphda has an apparent magnitude of 2.04 which is how bright we see the star from Earth. Apparent Magnitude is also known as Visual Magnitude. If you used the 1997 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of -0.30 If you used the 2007 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of -0.31. Magnitude, whether it be apparent/visual or absolute magnitude is measured by a number, the smaller the number, the brighter the Star is. Our own Sun is the brightest star and therefore has the lowest of all magnitudes, -26.74. A faint star will have a high number.
Using the original Hipparcos data that was released in 1997, the parallax to the star was given as 34.04 which gave the calculated distance to Diphda as 95.82 light years away from Earth or 29.38 parsecs. It would take a spaceship travelling at the speed of light, 95.82 years to get there. We don't have the technology or spaceship that can carry people over that distance yet.
In 2007, Hipparcos data was revised with a new parallax of 33.86 which put Diphda at a distance of 96.33 light years or 29.53 parsecs. It should not be taken as though the star is moving closer or further away from us. It is purely that the distance was recalculated.
Using the 2007 distance, the star is roughly 6,090,957.29 Astronomical Units from the Earth/Sun give or take a few. An Astronomical Unit is the distance between Earth and the Sun. The number of A.U. is the number of times that the star is from the Earth compared to the Sun.
The star's Galacto-Centric Distance is 7,402.00 Parsecs or 24,142.61 Light Years. The Galacto-Centric Distance is the distance from the star to the Centre of the Galaxy which is Sagittarius A*. Diphda brightness ranges from a magnitude of 2.226 to a magnitude of 2.195 over its variable period. The smaller the magnitude, the brighter the star. Its variable/pulsating period lasts for 0.0 days (variability).
The source of the information if it has a Hip I.D. is from Simbad, the Hipparcos data library based at the University at Strasbourg, France. Hipparcos was a E.S.A. satellite operation launched in 1989 for four years. The items in red are values that I've calculated so they could well be wrong. Information regarding Metallicity and/or Mass is from the E.U. Exoplanets. The information was obtained as of 12th Feb 2017.
|Primary / Proper / Traditional Name||Diphda|
|Alternative Names||Beta Ceti, Bet Cet, Deneb Kaitos, Ad-Difdi', HD 4128, HIP 3419, HR 188, 70 G. Ceti, 16 Ceti, 16 Cet, BD-18 115, Gliese 31, NSV 00272|
|Constellation's Main Star||Yes|
|Multiple Star System||No / Unknown|
|Star Type||Giant Star|
|Colour||Orange to Red|
|Absolute Magnitude||-0.30 / -0.31|
|Visual / Apparent Magnitude||2.04|
|Naked Eye Visible||Yes - Magnitudes|
|Right Ascension (R.A.)||00h 43m 35.23|
|Declination (Dec.)||-17° 59` 12.1|
|Galactic Latitude||-80.68 degrees|
|Galactic Longitude||111.33 degrees|
|1997 Distance from Earth||34.04 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|95.82 Light Years|
|2007 Distance from Earth||33.86 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|96.33 Light Years|
|6,090,957.29 Astronomical Units|
|Galacto-Centric Distance||24,142.61 Light Years / 7,402.00 Parsecs|
|Proper Motion Dec.||31.99 ± 0.12 milliarcseconds/year|
|Proper Motion RA.||232.55 ± 0.16 milliarcseconds/year|
|Radial Velocity||13.10 ± 0.10 km/s|
|Iron Abundance||0.02 ± 9.99 Fe/H|
|Stellar Luminosity (Lsun)||163.46|
|Mean Variability Period in Days||0.017|
|Variable Magnitude Range (Brighter - Dimmer)||2.195 - 2.226|
|Radius (x the Sun)||15.26|
|Effective Temperature||4,849 Kelvin|
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