Gacrux (Gamma Crucis) is a red eruptive giant star that can be located in the constellation of Crux. Gacrux is the 25th brightest star in the night sky and the 4th brightest star in Crux based on the Hipparcos 2007 apparent magnitude. The star can be seen with the naked eye, that is, you don't need a telescope/binoculars to see it.
Gamma Crucis is the Bayer Classification for the star. The Id of the star in the Yale Bright Star Catalogue is HR4763. HIP61084 is the reference name for the star in the Hipparcos Star Catalogue. The Id of the star in the Henry Draper catalogue is HD108903. The Gliese ID of the star is GL 470. The star was part of the original catalogue devised by German Astronomer Wilheim Gliese of stars located within 20 parsecs of Earth. Ref : Star Names.
Gacrux has alternative name(s) :- , NSV 05672.
More details on star alternative names can be found at Star Names .
The location of the star in the galaxy is determined by the Right Ascension (R.A.) and Declination (Dec.), these are equivalent to the Longitude and Latitude on the Earth. The Right Ascension is how far expressed in time (hh:mm:ss) the star is along the celestial equator. If the R.A. is positive then its eastwards. The Declination is how far north or south the star is compared to the celestial equator and is expressed in degrees. For Gacrux, the location is 12h 31m 09.93 and -57° 06` 45.2 .
All stars like planets orbit round a central spot, in the case of planets, its the central star such as the Sun. In the case of a star, its the galactic centre. The constellations that we see today will be different than they were 50,000 years ago or 50,000 years from now. Proper Motion details the movements of these stars and are measured in milliarcseconds. The star is moving -265.08 ± 0.11 miliarcseconds/year towards the north and 28.23 ± 0.18 miliarcseconds/year east if we saw them in the horizon. The Radial Velocity, that is the speed at which the star is moving away/towards us is 21.00000 km/s with an error of about 0.10 km/s .
Gacrux has a spectral type of M4III. This means the star is a red giant star. The star is 7,386.00 Parsecs from the Galactic Centre or terms of Light Years is 24,090.42 s. The star has a B-V Colour Index of 1.6 which means the star's temperature has been calculated using information from Morgans @ Uni.edu at being 3,779 Kelvin.
Gacrux Radius has been calculated as being 28.19 times bigger than the Sun.The Sun's radius is 695,800km, therefore the star's radius is an estimated 19,617,314.03.km. However with the 2007 release of updated Hipparcos files, the radius is now calculated at being round 28.45. The figure is derived at by using the formula from SDSS and has been known to produce widely incorrect figures.
Gacrux has an apparent magnitude of 1.59 which is how bright we see the star from Earth. Apparent Magnitude is also known as Visual Magnitude. If you used the 1997 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of -0.56 If you used the 2007 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of -0.58. Magnitude, whether it be apparent/visual or absolute magnitude is measured by a number, the smaller the number, the brighter the Star is. Our own Sun is the brightest star and therefore has the lowest of all magnitudes, -26.74. A faint star will have a high number.
Using the original Hipparcos data that was released in 1997, the parallax to the star was given as 37.09 which gave the calculated distance to Gacrux as 87.94 light years away from Earth or 26.96 parsecs. It would take a spaceship travelling at the speed of light, 87.94 years to get there. We don't have the technology or spaceship that can carry people over that distance yet.
In 2007, Hipparcos data was revised with a new parallax of 36.83 which put Gacrux at a distance of 88.56 light years or 27.15 parsecs. It should not be taken as though the star is moving closer or further away from us. It is purely that the distance was recalculated.
The star's Galacto-Centric Distance is 7,386.00 Parsecs or 24,090.42 Light Years. The Galacto-Centric Distance is the distance from the star to the Centre of the Galaxy which is Sagittarius A*.
The star is a eruptive Irregular variable type which means that its size changes over time. The Variable Type is usually named after the first star of that type to be spotted. Gacrux brightness ranges from a magnitude of 1.677 to a magnitude of 1.592 over its variable period. The smaller the magnitude, the brighter the star. Its variable/pulsating period lasts for 0.1 days (variability).
The source of the information if it has a Hip I.D. is from Simbad, the Hipparcos data library based at the University at Strasbourg, France. Hipparcos was a E.S.A. satellite operation launched in 1989 for four years. The items in red are values that I've calculated so they could well be wrong. Information regarding Metallicity and/or Mass is from the E.U. Exoplanets. The information was obtained as of 12th Feb 2017.
|Alternative Names||Gamma Crucis, HD 108903, HIP 61084, HR 4763, Gliese 470, NSV 05672|
|Multiple Star System||Yes|
|Star Type||Giant Star|
|Absolute Magnitude||-0.56 / -0.58|
|Visual / Apparent Magnitude||1.59|
|Naked Eye Visible||Yes - Magnitudes|
|Right Ascension (R.A.)||12h 31m 09.93|
|Declination (Dec.)||-57° 06` 45.2|
|Galactic Latitude||5.65 degrees|
|Galactic Longitude||300.17 degrees|
|1997 Distance from Earth||37.09 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|87.94 Light Years|
|2007 Distance from Earth||36.83 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|88.56 Light Years|
|Galacto-Centric Distance||24,090.42 Light Years / 7,386.00 Parsecs|
|Proper Motion Dec.||-265.08 ± 0.11 milliarcseconds/year|
|Proper Motion RA.||28.23 ± 0.18 milliarcseconds/year|
|Radial Velocity||21.00 ± 0.10 km/s|
|Brightest in Night Sky||25th|
|Variable Star Class||Eruptive|
|Variable Star Type||Irregular|
|Mean Variability Period in Days||0.074|
|Variable Magnitude Range (Brighter - Dimmer)||1.592 - 1.677|
|Calculated Effective Temperature||3,779 Kelvin|
The star has been identified as being a multi-star system, one in which there is at least one star in close orbit to another star or two or more stars orbiting a central point. The stars may be of equal mass, unequal mass where one star is stronger than the other or be in groups orbiting a central point which doesn't necessarily have to be a star. More information can be found on my dedicated multiple star systems page. The source of the info is Simbad. The file is dated 2000 so any differences between this and any other source will be down to the actual source from where the information came from.
|Proper Motion mas/yr|
|H.D. Id||B.D. Id||Star Code||Magnitude||R.A.||Dec.||Spectrum||Colour||Year|
The map was generated using Night Vision, an awesome free application by Brian Simpson.
|Izabela Smigulski||Monday, 25th September 2017 2:57:40 PM|
|How can I find out which are the closest stars to Gacrux? Or is this not possible from our position e.g. dwarfs close to Gacrux may not be visible to the viewers from our position.|