Gliese 1 is a red star that can be located in the constellation of Sculptor. The star can not be seen by the naked eye, you need a telescope to see it.
HIP439 is the reference name for the star in the Hipparcos Star Catalogue. The Id of the star in the Henry Draper catalogue is HD225213. The Gliese ID of the star is GL 1. The star was part of the original catalogue devised by German Astronomer Wilheim Gliese of stars located within 20 parsecs of Earth. Ref : Star Names.
The location of the star in the galaxy is determined by the Right Ascension (R.A.) and Declination (Dec.), these are equivalent to the Longitude and Latitude on the Earth. The Right Ascension is how far expressed in time (hh:mm:ss) the star is along the celestial equator. If the R.A. is positive then its eastwards. The Declination is how far north or south the star is compared to the celestial equator and is expressed in degrees. For Gliese 1, the location is 00h 05m 20.29 and -37d 21` 06.1 .
All stars like planets orbit round a central spot, in the case of planets, its the central star such as the Sun. In the case of a star, its the galactic centre. The constellations that we see today will be different than they were 50,000 years ago or 50,000 years from now. Proper Motion details the movements of these stars and are measured in milliarcseconds. The star is moving -2,337.71 ± 0.58 miliarcseconds/year towards the north and 5,634.68 ± 0.90 miliarcseconds/year east if we saw them in the horizon. The Radial Velocity, that is the speed at which the star is moving away/towards us is 25.38000 km/s with an error of about 0.22 km/s .
Gliese 1 has a spectral type of M2V. This means the star is a red star. The star is 7399.00000000 Parsecs from the Galactic Centre or terms of Light Years is 24132.8258225600000000s. The star has a B-V Colour Index of 1.4 which means the star's temperature has been calculated using information from Morgans @ Uni.edu at being 4,159 Kelvin.
Gliese 1 Radius has been calculated as being 0.15 times bigger than the Sun.The Sun's radius is 695,800km, therefore the star's radius is an estimated 106,000.59.km. However with the 2007 release of updated Hipparcos files, the radius is now calculated at being round 0.15. The figure is derived at by using the formula from SDSS and has been known to produce widely incorrect figures.
Gliese 1 has an apparent magnitude of 8.56 which is how bright we see the star from Earth. Apparent Magnitude is also known as Visual Magnitude. If you used the 1997 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of 10.36 If you used the 2007 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of 10.37. Magnitude, whether it be apparent/visual or absolute magnitude is measured by a number, the smaller the number, the brighter the Star is. Our own Sun is the brightest star and therefore has the lowest of all magnitudes, -26.74. A faint star will have a high number.
Using the original Hipparcos data that was released in 1997, the parallax to the star was given as 229.33 which gave the calculated distance to Gliese 1 as 14.22 light years away from Earth or 4.36 parsecs. It would take a spaceship travelling at the speed of light, 14.22 years to get there. We don't have the technology or spaceship that can carry people over that distance yet.
In 2007, Hipparcos data was revised with a new parallax of 230.42 which put Gliese 1 at a distance of 14.16 light years or 4.34 parsecs. It should not be taken as though the star is moving closer or further away from us. It is purely that the distance was recalculated.
The star's Galacto-Centric Distance is 7,399.00 Parsecs or 24,132.83 Light Years. The Galacto-Centric Distance is the distance from the star to the Centre of the Galaxy which is Sagittarius A*.
The source of the information if it has a Hip I.D. is from Simbad, the Hipparcos data library based at the University at Strasbourg, France. Hipparcos was a E.S.A. satellite operation launched in 1989 for four years. The items in red are values that I've calculated so they could well be wrong. Information regarding Metallicity and/or Mass is from the E.U. Exoplanets. The information was obtained as of 12th Feb 2017.
|Traditional/Proper Name||Gliese 1|
|Hipparcos Library I.D.||439|
|Gliese ID||GL 1|
|Henry Draper Designation||225213|
|Absolute Magnitude||10.36 / 10.37|
|Visual / Apparent Magnitude||8.56|
|Naked Eye Visible||Requires a 7x50 Binoculars - Magnitudes|
|Right Ascension (R.A.)||00h 05m 20.29|
|Declination (Dec.)||-37d 21` 06.1|
|Galactic Latitude||-75.90 degrees|
|Galactic Longitude||343.61 degrees|
|1997 Distance from Earth||229.33 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|14.22 Light Years|
|2007 Revised Distance from Earth||230.42 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|14.16 Light Years|
|Galacto-Centric Distance||24,132.83 Light Years / 7,399.00 Parsecs|
|Proper Motion Dec.||-2337.71 ± 0.58 milliarcseconds/year|
|Proper Motion RA.||5634.68 ± 0.90 milliarcseconds/year|
|Radial Velocity||25.38 ± 0.22 km/s|
|Calculated Effective Temperature||4,159 Kelvin|