Keid (Omicron-2 Eridani) is a orange to red main sequence dwarf star that can be located in the constellation of Eridanus. Keid is the brightest star in Eridanus based on the Hipparcos 2007 apparent magnitude. The star can be seen with the naked eye, that is, you don't need a telescope/binoculars to see it.
Omicron-2 Eridani is the Bayer Classification for the star. The Id of the star in the Yale Bright Star Catalogue is HR1325. HIP19849 is the reference name for the star in the Hipparcos Star Catalogue. The Id of the star in the Henry Draper catalogue is HD26965. The Id of the star in the Gould Star Catalogue is 197. Stars in the southern hemisphere are more likely to have a Gould Id than the northern hemisphere. For example, there are no Gould classified stars in Ursa Major. The Gliese ID of the star is Gliese GL166A. The star was part of the original catalogue devised by German Astronomer Wilheim Gliese of stars located within 20 parsecs of Earth. Ref : Star Names.
There are two stars in Eridanus with similar sounding names, Beid and Keid so make sure you get the right one. Both star are close to one another when you look up at the star but are light years apart. Keid although on the shore of the river is the more famous of the two stars. It has the designation name of 40 Eridani which is the star that Gene Roddenberry said was host star for the Vulcan homeworld. ref: N.A.S.A.
Keid is a multi-star system and any planet would have an skyline similar to Tatooine in the rival Star Wars entertainment franchise. As the article mentioned above, there have been no planets discovered in orbit round the star as yet, the article was written on August 5th 2016. Its not to say there aren`t any, its just that there`s been discovered so far. It is a relatively near star compared to some other stars so the interest in it is greater than other stars.
As the star is dimmer than our Sun, any exoplanet would be closer into the star to ge the necessary heat and light that is needed for life to exist.
The location of the star in the galaxy is determined by the Right Ascension (R.A.) and Declination (Dec.), these are equivalent to the Longitude and Latitude on the Earth. The Right Ascension is how far expressed in time (hh:mm:ss) the star is along the celestial equator. If the R.A. is positive then its eastwards. The Declination is how far north or south the star is compared to the celestial equator and is expressed in degrees. For Keid, the location is 04h 15m 17.64 and -07d38`40.4 .
All stars like planets orbit round a central spot, in the case of planets, its the central star such as the Sun. In the case of a star, its the galactic centre. The constellations that we see today will be different than they were 50,000 years ago or 50,000 years from now. Proper Motion details the movements of these stars and are measured in milliarcseconds. The star is moving -3,420.27 ± 0.14 miliarcseconds/year towards the north and -2,240.12 ± 0.23 miliarcseconds/year east if we saw them in the horizon.
Keid has a spectral type of K1V. This means the star is a orange to red main sequence dwarf star. The star is 7404.00000000 Parsecs from the Galactic Centre or terms of Light Years is 24149.1339897600000000s. The star has a B-V Colour Index of 0.82 which means the star's temperature has been calculated using information from Morgans @ Uni.edu at being 5,236 Kelvin.
Keid Radius has been calculated as being 0.74 times bigger than the Sun.The Sun's radius is 695,800km, therefore the star's radius is an estimated 516,809.44.km. However with the 2007 release of updated Hipparcos files, the radius is now calculated at being round 0.74. The figure is derived at by using the formula from SDSS and has been known to produce widely incorrect figures. The star's Iron Abundance is -0.24 with an error value of 9.99 Fe/H with the Sun has a value of 1 to put it into context.
Keid has an apparent magnitude of 4.43 which is how bright we see the star from Earth. Apparent Magnitude is also known as Visual Magnitude. If you used the 1997 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of 5.92 If you used the 2007 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of 5.94. Magnitude, whether it be apparent/visual or absolute magnitude is measured by a number, the smaller the number, the brighter the Star is. Our own Sun is the brightest star and therefore has the lowest of all magnitudes, -26.74. A faint star will have a high number.
Using the original Hipparcos data that was released in 1997, the parallax to the star was given as 198.24 which gave the calculated distance to Keid as 16.45 light years away from Earth or 5.04 parsecs. It would take a spaceship travelling at the speed of light, 16.45 years to get there. We don't have the technology or spaceship that can carry people over that distance yet.
In 2007, Hipparcos data was revised with a new parallax of 200.62 which put Keid at a distance of 16.26 light years or 4.98 parsecs. It should not be taken as though the star is moving closer or further away from us. It is purely that the distance was recalculated.
The star's Galacto-Centric Distance is 7,404.00 Parsecs or 24,149.13 Light Years. The Galacto-Centric Distance is the distance from the star to the Centre of the Galaxy which is Sagittarius A*. Keid brightness ranges from a magnitude of 4.587 to a magnitude of 4.554 over its variable period. The smaller the magnitude, the brighter the star. Its variable/pulsating period lasts for 0.1 days (variability).
The source of the information if it has a Hip I.D. is from Simbad, the Hipparcos data library based at the University at Strasbourg, France. Hipparcos was a E.S.A. satellite operation launched in 1989 for four years. The items in red are values that I've calculated so they could well be wrong. Information regarding Metallicity and/or Mass is from the E.U. Exoplanets. The information was obtained as of 12th Feb 2017.
|Flamsteed Name||40 Eridani|
|Flamsteed Short Name||40 Eri|
|Bayer Designation||Omicron-2 Eridani|
|Hipparcos Library I.D.||19849|
|Yale Bright Star Catalogue (HR) Id||1325|
|Bonner Durchmusterung||BD-07 780|
|Henry Draper Designation||26965|
|Star Type||main sequence dwarf star|
|Absolute Magnitude||5.92 / 5.94|
|Visual / Apparent Magnitude||4.43|
|Naked Eye Visible||Yes - Magnitudes|
|Right Ascension (R.A.)||04h 15m 17.64|
|Galactic Latitude||-38.04 degrees|
|Galactic Longitude||200.75 degrees|
|1997 Distance from Earth||198.24 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|16.45 Light Years|
|2007 Revised Distance from Earth||200.62 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|16.26 Light Years|
|Galacto-Centric Distance||24,149.13 Light Years / 7,404.00 Parsecs|
|Proper Motion Dec.||-3420.27 ± 0.14 milliarcseconds/year|
|Proper Motion RA.||-2240.12 ± 0.23 milliarcseconds/year|
|Radial Velocity||-42.32 ± 0.08 km/s|
|Iron Abundance||-0.24 ± 9.99 Fe/H|
|Colour||(K) Orange to Red|
|Mean Variability Period in Days||0.054|
|Variable Magnitude Range (Brighter - Dimmer)||4.554 - 4.587|
|Calculated Effective Temperature||5,236 Kelvin|
The star has been identified as being a multi-star system, one in which there is at least one star in close orbit to another star or two or more stars orbiting a central point. The stars may be of equal mass, unequal mass where one star is stronger than the other or be in groups orbiting a central point which doesn't necessarily have to be a star. More information can be found on my dedicated multiple star systems page. The source of the info is Simbad. The file is dated 2000 so any differences between this and any other source will be down to the actual source from where the information came from.
|Proper Motion mas/yr|
|H.D. Id||B.D. Id||Star Code||Magnitude||R.A.||Dec.||Spectrum||Colour||Year|
The map was generated using Night Vision, an awesome free application by Brian Simpson.