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Psi1 Aquarii (91 Aquarii) Star Facts

Psi1 Aquarii Facts

  • Psi1 Aquarii is a giant star that can be located in the constellation of Aquarius. The description is based on the spectral class.
  • Psi1 Aquarii is not part of the constellation outline but is within the borders of the constellation.
  • Based on the spectral type (K0III) of the star, the star's colour is orange to red .
  • The star can be seen with the naked eye, that is, you don't need a telescope/binoculars to see it.
  • It is calculated at being 3.560 Billion Years old. This information comes from ExoPlanet.
  • Psi1 Aquarii has at least 1 Extrasolar Planets believed to be in orbit around the star.
  • Using the most recent figures given by the 2007 Hipparcos data, the star is 149.82 light years away from us. Distance

Psi1 Aquarii's Alternative Names

Psi1 Aquarii (Psi01 Aqr) is the Bayer Classification for the star. The Bayer Classification was created by Johann Bayer in 1603. The brightest star in the constellation is normally given the Alpha designation, there are exceptions such as Pollux which is Beta Geminorum.

The Id of the star in the Yale Bright Star Catalogue is HR8841. HIP114855 is the reference name for the star in the Hipparcos Star Catalogue. The Id of the star in the Henry Draper catalogue is HD219449. The Gliese ID of the star is GL 893.2A. The star was part of the original catalogue devised by German Astronomer Wilheim Gliese of stars located within 20 parsecs of Earth. Star Names

Flamsteed designations are named after the creator, Sir John Flamsteed. Sir John named the stars in the constellation with a number and its latin name, this star's Flamsteed designation is 91 Aquarii. The Flamsteed name can be shortened to 91 Aqr.

The Gould star designation is one that was designed by American astronomer, Benjamin Apthorp Gould. Gould stars are predominantly in the Southern and Equatorial constellations but do appear in northern constellations such as Bootes and Orion. The star has the designation 218 G. Aquarii. There are no stars with a Gould designation in Ursa Major for example.

BD number is the number that the star was filed under in the Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung, a star catalogue that was put together by the Bonn Observatory between 1859 to 1903. The star's BD Number is BD-09 6156.

More details on objects' alternative names can be found at Star Names .

Location of Psi1 Aquarii

The location of the giant star in the night sky is determined by the Right Ascension (R.A.) and Declination (Dec.), these are equivalent to the Longitude and Latitude on the Earth. The Right Ascension is how far expressed in time (hh:mm:ss) the star is along the celestial equator. If the R.A. is positive then its eastwards. The Declination is how far north or south the object is compared to the celestial equator and is expressed in degrees. For Psi1 Aquarii, the location is 23h 15m 53.28 and -09° 05` 15.7 .

Radial Velocity and Proper Motion of Psi1 Aquarii

Proper Motion

All stars like planets orbit round a central spot, in the case of planets, its the central star such as the Sun. In the case of a star, its the galactic centre. The constellations that we see today will be different than they were 50,000 years ago or 50,000 years from now. Proper Motion details the movements of these stars and are measured in milliarcseconds. The star is moving -17.16 ± 0.20 milliarcseconds/year towards the north and 368.78 ± 0.29 milliarcseconds/year east if we saw them in the horizon.

Radial Velocity

The Radial Velocity, that is the speed at which the star is moving away/towards the Sun is -25.88000 km/s with an error of about 0.16 km/s . When the value is negative then the star and the Sun are getting closer to one another, likewise, a positive number means that two stars are moving away. Its nothing to fear as the stars are so far apart, they won't collide in our life-time, if ever.

Physical Properties of Psi1 Aquarii

Psi1 Aquarii Colour and Temperature

Based on the star's spectral type of K0III , Psi1 Aquarii's colour and type is orange to red giant star. The star has a B-V Colour Index of 1.1 which means the star's temperature is about 4,664 Kelvin. The temperature was calculated using information from Morgans @ Uni.edu.

Psi1 Aquarii Luminosity

Luminosity is the amount of energy that a star pumps out and its relative to the amount that our star, the Sun gives out. The figure of 57.24 that I have given is based on the value in the Simbad Hipparcos Extended Catalogue at the University of Strasbourg from 2012.

Psi1 Aquarii Radius

Psi1 Aquarii estimated radius has been calculated as being 9.23 times bigger than the Sun. The Sun's radius is 695,800km, therefore the star's radius is an estimated 6,424,826.73.km. If you need the diameter of the star, you just need to multiple the radius by 2. However with the 2007 release of updated Hipparcos files, the radius is now calculated at being round 9.319169094662894362146857252. The figure is derived at by using the formula from SDSS rather than peer reviewed papers. It has been known to produce widely incorrect figures.

Psi1 Aquarii Mass

The Psi1 Aquarii's solar mass is 1.40 times that of our star, the Sun. The Sun's Mass is 1,989,100,000,000,000,000,000 billion kg. which to calculate using this website is too large. To give idea of size, the Sun is 99.86% the mass of the solar system.

Psi1 Aquarii Metalicity

The star's metallicity is -0.030000, this value is the fractional amount of the star that is not Hydrogen (X) or Helium (Y). An older star would have a high metallicity whereas a new star would have a lower one.

Psi1 Aquarii Estimated Age

The star is believed to be about 3.56 Billion years old. To put in context, the Sun is believed to be about five billion years old and the Universe is about 13.8 billion years old.

Psi1 Aquarii Apparent and Absolute Magnitudes

Psi1 Aquarii has an apparent magnitude of 4.24 which is how bright we see the star from Earth. Apparent Magnitude is also known as Visual Magnitude. If you used the 1997 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of 0.95 If you used the 2007 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of 0.93. Magnitude, whether it be apparent/visual or absolute magnitude is measured by a number, the smaller the number, the brighter the Star is. Our own Sun is the brightest star and therefore has the lowest of all magnitudes, -26.74. A faint star will have a high number.

Distance to Psi1 Aquarii

Using the original Hipparcos data that was released in 1997, the parallax to the star was given as 21.97000 which gave the calculated distance to Psi1 Aquarii as 148.46 light years away from Earth or 45.52 parsecs. If you want that in miles, it is about 872,740,722,902,838.74, based on 1 Ly = 5,878,625,373,183.61 miles.

In 2007, Hipparcos data was revised with a new parallax of 21.77000 which put Psi1 Aquarii at a distance of 149.82 light years or 45.93 parsecs. It should not be taken as though the star is moving closer or further away from us. It is purely that the distance was recalculated.

Using the 2007 distance, the star is roughly 9,473,676.54 Astronomical Units from the Earth/Sun give or take a few. An Astronomical Unit is the distance between Earth and the Sun. The number of A.U. is the number of times that the star is from the Earth compared to the Sun. The star's Galacto-Centric Distance is 7,391.00 Parsecs or 24,106.73 Light Years. The Galacto-Centric Distance is the distance from the star to the Centre of the Galaxy which is Sagittarius A*.

Travel Time to Psi1 Aquarii

The time it will take to travel to this star is dependent on how fast you are going. U.G. has done some calculations as to how long it will take going at differing speeds. A note about the calculations, when I'm talking about years, I'm talking non-leap years only (365 days).

The New Horizons space probe is the fastest probe that we've sent into space at the time of writing. Its primary mission was to visit Pluto which at the time of launch (2006), Pluto was still a planet.

DescriptionSpeed (m.p.h.)Time (years)
Walking425,117,945,839.20
Car120837,264,861.31
Airbus A380736136,510,575.21
Speed of Sound (Mach 1)767.269130,947,273.19
Concorde (Mach 2)1,534.5465,473,551.26
New Horizons Probe33,0003,044,599.50
Speed of Light670,616,629.00149.82

Source of Information

The source of the information if it has a Hip I.D. is from Simbad, the Hipparcos data library based at the University at Strasbourg, France. Hipparcos was a E.S.A. satellite operation launched in 1989 for four years. The items in red are values that I've calculated so they could well be wrong. Information regarding Metallicity and/or Mass is from the E.U. Exoplanets. The information was obtained as of 12th Feb 2017.

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Additional Psi1 Aquarii Facts and Figures

Visual Facts


Primary / Proper / Traditional NamePsi1 Aquarii
Alternative NamesPsi01 Aqr, HD 219449, HIP 114855, HR 8841, 218 G. Aquarii, 91 Aquarii, 91 Aqr, BD-09 6156, Gliese 893.2A
Spectral TypeK0III
Constellation's Main StarNo
Multiple Star SystemYes
Star TypeGiant Star
ColourOrange to Red
GalaxyMilky Way
ConstellationAquarius
Age3.56 Billion Years Old
Absolute Magnitude 0.95 / 0.93
Visual / Apparent Magnitude4.24
Naked Eye VisibleYes - Magnitudes
Right Ascension (R.A.)23h 15m 53.28
Declination (Dec.)-09° 05` 15.7
Galactic Latitude-61.11134442 degrees
Galactic Longitude67.07090045 degrees
1997 Distance from Earth21.97000 Parallax (milliarcseconds)
 148.46 Light Years
 45.52 Parsecs
2007 Distance from Earth21.77000 Parallax (milliarcseconds)
 149.82 Light Years
 45.93 Parsecs
 9,473,676.54 Astronomical Units
Galacto-Centric Distance24,106.73 Light Years / 7,391.00 Parsecs
Proper Motion Dec.-17.16000 ± 0.20000 milliarcseconds/year
Proper Motion RA.368.78000 ± 0.29000 milliarcseconds/year
B-V Index1.1
Radial Velocity-25.88000 ± 0.16 km/s
Iron Abundance0.0000 ± 0.02 Fe/H
Eccentricity0.34820
Semi-Major Axis5939.0000000
Stellar Luminosity (Lsun)57.2400000
Associated / Clustered StarsPsi2 Aquarii
Psi3 Aquarii

Companions (Multi-Star and Exoplanets) Facts


Exoplanet Count1

Estimated Calculated Facts


Radius (x the Sun)9.32
Effective Temperature4,664 Kelvin
Mass Compared to the Sun1.40

Sources and Links


SIMBAD SourceLink

Multi-Star System

The star has been identified as being a multi-star system, one in which there is at least one star in close orbit to another star or two or more stars orbiting a central point. The stars may be of equal mass, unequal mass where one star is stronger than the other or be in groups orbiting a central point which doesn't necessarily have to be a star. More information can be found on my dedicated multiple star systems page. The source of the info is Simbad. The file is dated 2000 so any differences between this and any other source will be down to the actual source from where the information came from.


Proper Motion mas/yr
H.D. IdB.D. IdStar CodeMagnitudeR.A.Dec.SpectrumColourYear
219449-09 6156.0A4.50000369.00000-13.00000K0Orange
219430-09 6155.0B10.30000380.00000-6.00000KOrange1836
BC11.500001958
D13.500001924
BE14.300001924

List of Extrasolar Planets orbiting Psi1 Aquarii


NameStatusMass (Jupiters)Orbital Period (Days)EccentricityDiscoveredSemi-Major AxisPeriastron
91 Aqr bConfirmed181.4000.02720030.7177.300

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