Saiph (Kappa Orionis) is a blue pulsating supergiant star that can be located in the constellation of Orion. The description is based on the spectral class. Saiph is a main star of the constellation.
Saiph is the 58th brightest star in the night sky and the 6th brightest star in Orion based on the Hipparcos 2007 apparent magnitude. The star can be seen with the naked eye, that is, you don't need a telescope/binoculars to see it.
Kappa Orionis (Kap Ori) is the Bayer Classification for the star. The Id of the star in the Yale Bright Star Catalogue is HR2004. HIP27366 is the reference name for the star in the Hipparcos Star Catalogue. The Id of the star in the Henry Draper catalogue is HD38771.
Saiph has alternative name(s) :- Saif Al Jabbar, NSV 02641. In Arabic, it is known as As-Saif.
Flamsteed designations are named after the creator, Sir John Flamsteed. Sir John numbered the stars in the constellation with a number and the latin name, this star's Flamsteed designation is 53 Orionis with it shortened to 53 Ori.
BD number is the number that the star was filed under in the Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung, a star catalogue that was put together by the Bonn Observatory between 1859 to 1903. The star's BD Number is BD-09 1235.
More details on star alternative names can be found at Star Names .
The location of the star in the night sky is determined by the Right Ascension (R.A.) and Declination (Dec.), these are equivalent to the Longitude and Latitude on the Earth. The Right Ascension is how far expressed in time (hh:mm:ss) the star is along the celestial equator. If the R.A. is positive then its eastwards. The Declination is how far north or south the star is compared to the celestial equator and is expressed in degrees. For Saiph, the location is 05h 47m 45.39 and -09° 40` 10.6 .
All stars like planets orbit round a central spot, in the case of planets, its the central star such as the Sun. In the case of a star, its the galactic centre. The constellations that we see today will be different than they were 50,000 years ago or 50,000 years from now. Proper Motion details the movements of these stars and are measured in milliarcseconds. The star is moving -1.28 ± 0.13 miliarcseconds/year towards the north and 1.46 ± 0.22 miliarcseconds/year east if we saw them in the horizon.
The Radial Velocity, that is the speed at which the star is moving away/towards the Sun is 20.90 km/s with an error of about 2.30 km/s . When the value is negative then the star and the Sun are getting closer to one another, likewise, a positive number means that two stars are moving away. Its nothing to fear as the stars are so far apart, they won't collide in our life-time, if ever.
Luminosity is the amount of energy that a star pumps out and its relative to the amount that our star, the Sun gives out. The figure of 15,106.20 that I have given is based on the value in the Simbad Hipparcos Extended Catalogue at the University of Strasbourg from 2012.
Saiph has a spectral type of B0.5Iavar. This means the star is a blue supergiant star. The star is 7,556.00 Parsecs from the Galactic Centre or terms of Light Years is 24,644.90 s. The star has a B-V Colour Index of -0.16 which means the star's temperature has been calculated using information from Morgans @ Uni.edu at being 17,659 Kelvin.
Saiph Radius has been calculated as being 8.49 times bigger than the Sun.The Sun's radius is 695,800km, therefore the star's radius is an estimated 5,908,826.92.km. If you need the diameter of the star, you just need to multiple the radius by 2. However with the 2007 release of updated Hipparcos files, the radius is now calculated at being round 7.64. The figure is derived at by using the formula from SDSS and has been known to produce widely incorrect figures.
Saiph has an apparent magnitude of 2.07 which is how bright we see the star from Earth. Apparent Magnitude is also known as Visual Magnitude. If you used the 1997 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of -4.65 If you used the 2007 Parallax value, you would get an absolute magnitude of -4.42. Magnitude, whether it be apparent/visual or absolute magnitude is measured by a number, the smaller the number, the brighter the Star is. Our own Sun is the brightest star and therefore has the lowest of all magnitudes, -26.74. A faint star will have a high number.
Using the original Hipparcos data that was released in 1997, the parallax to the star was given as 4.52 which gave the calculated distance to Saiph as 721.60 light years away from Earth or 221.24 parsecs. It would take a spaceship travelling at the speed of light, 721.60 years to get there. We don't have the technology or spaceship that can carry people over that distance yet.
In 2007, Hipparcos data was revised with a new parallax of 5.04 which put Saiph at a distance of 647.15 light years or 198.41 parsecs. It should not be taken as though the star is moving closer or further away from us. It is purely that the distance was recalculated.
Using the 2007 distance, the star is roughly 40,924,715.04 Astronomical Units from the Earth/Sun give or take a few. An Astronomical Unit is the distance between Earth and the Sun. The number of A.U. is the number of times that the star is from the Earth compared to the Sun.
The star's Galacto-Centric Distance is 7,556.00 Parsecs or 24,644.90 Light Years. The Galacto-Centric Distance is the distance from the star to the Centre of the Galaxy which is Sagittarius A*.
The star is a pulsating Beta Cephei variable type which means that its size changes over time. The Variable Type is usually named after the first star of that type to be spotted. Saiph brightness ranges from a magnitude of 2.021 to a magnitude of 1.986 over its variable period. The smaller the magnitude, the brighter the star. Its variable/pulsating period lasts for 0.0 days (variability).
The source of the information if it has a Hip I.D. is from Simbad, the Hipparcos data library based at the University at Strasbourg, France. Hipparcos was a E.S.A. satellite operation launched in 1989 for four years. The items in red are values that I've calculated so they could well be wrong. Information regarding Metallicity and/or Mass is from the E.U. Exoplanets. The information was obtained as of 12th Feb 2017.
|Primary / Proper / Traditional Name||Saiph|
|Alternative Names||Kappa Orionis, Kap Ori, Saif Al Jabbar, As-Saif, HD 38771, HIP 27366, HR 2004, 53 Orionis, 53 Ori, BD-09 1235, NSV 02641|
|Constellation's Main Star||Yes|
|Multiple Star System||No / Unknown|
|Star Type||very luminous Supergiant Star|
|Absolute Magnitude||-4.65 / -4.42|
|Visual / Apparent Magnitude||2.07|
|Naked Eye Visible||Yes - Magnitudes|
|Right Ascension (R.A.)||05h 47m 45.39|
|Declination (Dec.)||-09° 40` 10.6|
|Galactic Latitude||-18.50 degrees|
|Galactic Longitude||214.51 degrees|
|1997 Distance from Earth||4.52 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|721.60 Light Years|
|2007 Distance from Earth||5.04 Parallax (milliarcseconds)|
|647.15 Light Years|
|40,924,715.04 Astronomical Units|
|Galacto-Centric Distance||24,644.90 Light Years / 7,556.00 Parsecs|
|Proper Motion Dec.||-1.28 ± 0.13 milliarcseconds/year|
|Proper Motion RA.||1.46 ± 0.22 milliarcseconds/year|
|Radial Velocity||20.90 ± 2.30 km/s|
|Stellar Luminosity (Lsun)||15,106.20|
|Brightest in Night Sky||58th|
|Variable Star Class||Pulsating|
|Variable Star Type||Beta Cephei|
|Mean Variability Period in Days||0.037|
|Variable Magnitude Range (Brighter - Dimmer)||1.986 - 2.021|
|Calculated Effective Temperature||17,659 Kelvin|